Anyone interested in what Hank Rosso calls

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“Anyone interested in what Hank Rosso calls ‘the joy of giving’ will find value in this carefully edited book. Its comprehensive coverage and thought- provoking content provides numerous opportunities for reflection on what is required and what it means to be an effective and ethical fundraiser. In this fourth edition of a now classic text, the authors continue to advance the profession of fundraising. We are treated to updated information, findings from recent scholarship, and an instructor’s guide to further enhance learning.”

Mary Tschirhart, Professor, The Ohio State University; co-author of Managing Nonprofit Organizations

“Achieving excellence in fundraising is an important goal for CASE members worldwide who have chosen a career in the field. There is much debate as to the extent to which fundraising is an art or a science. The reality is that to be excellent, it has to be a combination of both, delivered with commitment, passion and integrity. New ideas and innovation continue to develop in the rapidly changing world of community and connectivity. Valuable, therefore, to have this fourth edition of Achieving Excellence in Fundraising which not only reminds us of the essentials of fundraising principles, but also covers new ground. The chapter on the opportunities availed in the 21st century through fast evolving social media is timely. As is the chapter on the joys imbued in philanthropic support including evidence both of the contagiousness of giving and its life enhancing and extending qualities! For those coming fresh to a career in fundraising there is much to discover here. For those who have made a career in this life transforming profession, this book provides helpful reminders and considerable food for thought.”

Sue Cunningham, President, Council for Advancement and Support of Education

“Achieving excellence in fundraising is a major goal of the best nonprofit CEOs and development professionals. This fully updated and comprehensive volume covers everything from developing the right philosophical approach to fundraising to understanding how to establish and execute both old and new fundraising strategies, as well as how to create and manage a development office. This book will be invaluable to both emerging and seasoned fund development professionals.”

Emmett D. Carson, Ph.D., Chief Executive Officer, Silicon Valley Community Foundation

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“Philanthropy is uniquely invaluable to the well-being of culture and community, and Achieving Excellence in Fundraising remains uniquely invaluable to the advancement of philanthropy. The Fund Raising School has relied on all previous editions of this knowledge-filled book to deliver highly impactful training to fundraising professionals around the world. This 4th edition combines timeless wisdom with the latest research-based strategies that are essential for fundraising success in the 21st Century economy.”

Bill Stanczykiewicz, Director, The Fund Raising School and Senior Lecturer, Philanthropic Studies, Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy

“It is fitting that this fourth edition of Achieving Excellence in Fundraising marks the transition from what was once a center on philanthropy to now the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy. Yet, more importantly, this edition reaffirms the principles of the former center’s visionary, Henry A. ‘Hank’ Rosso, whose voice and ideas reverberate and are woven within each essay, particularly, Gene Tempel’s introduction who further inscribes, etches and connects Rosso’s legacy to the IU Lilly Family School’s present and future.”

Brian Johnson, Ph.D., President, Tuskegee University

“It’s hard to imagine a more useful addition to the bookshelves of nonprofit professionals. But this book won’t just sit on the shelf-fundraisers, board members and nonprofit executives will find it to be a handy and astute reference guide to building a comprehensive giving program. I’ve kept this book close at hand in every nonprofit job I’ve had. The new edition is based on many decades of research and professional experience from some of the top experts in the field, and is a useful reference guide for building stronger relationships between grantmakers and fundraisers.”

Caroline Altman Smith, Senior Program Officer, The Kresge Foundation

“This book is an indispensable resource for both the fundraising novice and the seasoned professional. It is a current and comprehensive collection of essays written by highly respected professionals and touches every dimension of philanthropy. I strongly recommend it for everyone working in the philanthropic sector.”

Rodney P. Kirsch, Senior Vice President for Development and Alumni Relations, The Pennsylvania State University

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Essential Texts for Nonprofit and Public Leadership and Management

The Handbook of Nonprofit Governance, by BoardSource

Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations, 3rd edition, by John M. Bryson

The Effective Public Manager, 4th edition, by Steven Cohen et al.

Handbook of Human Resources Management in Government, 3rd edition, by Stephen E. Condrey (Ed.)

The Responsible Administrator, 5th edition, by Terry L. Cooper

Conducting a Successful Capital Campaign, revised and expanded edition, by Kent E. Dove

The Public Relations Handbook for Nonprofits, by Arthur Feinglass

The Jossey-Bass Handbook of Nonprofit Leadership and Management, 3rd edition, by David O. Renz, Robert D. Herman, & Associates (Eds.)

Benchmarking in the Public and Nonprofit Sectors, 2nd edition, by Patricia Keehley et al.

Museum Marketing and Strategy, 2nd edition, by Neil Kotler et al.

The Ethics Challenge in Public Service, 2nd edition, by Carol W. Lewis et al.

Leading Across Boundaries, by Russell M. Linden

Designing and Planning Programs for Nonprofit and Government Organizations, by Edward J. Pawlak

Measuring Performance in Public and Nonprofit Organizations, by Theodore H. Poister

Human Resources Management for Public and Nonprofit Organizations: A Strategic Approach, 3rd edition, by Joan E. Pynes

Understanding and Managing Public Organizations, 4th edition, by Hal G. Rainey

Designing and Conducting Survey Research, 3rd edition, by Louis M. Rea et al.

Fundraising Principles and Practice, by Adrian Sargeant, Jen Shang, & Associates

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Making Critical Decisions, by Roberta M. Snow et al.

Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation, 3rd edition, by Joseph S. Wholey, Harry P. Hatry, & Kathryn E. Newcomer (Eds.)

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The Instructor’s Guide for the fourth edition of Achieving Excellence in Fundraising includes syllabi and supporting materials for semester-long undergraduate and semester-long graduate versions of the course. The Instructor’s Guide is available free online. If you would like to download and print a copy of the guide, please visit:

www.wiley.com/college/tempel

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The Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy is the world’s first school dedicated solely to education and research about philanthropy. Established in 2012, the school was inaugurated in 2013 and named for one of America’s great philanthropic families in honor of their generations of generosity and leadership.

Indiana University has been at the vanguard of philanthropy education since the Center on Philanthropy at Indiana University was founded at Indiana University —Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) in 1987. Led by the center, Indiana University (IU) established the field of philanthropic studies; established the nation’s first bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. degrees in the field; and created the nation’s first endowed chair in philanthropy.

The Lilly Family School of Philanthropy prepares students, philanthropy professionals, donors and volunteers to be thoughtful innovators and leaders who create positive and lasting change. Alumni of its programs lead national nonprofits and foundations, serve international relief organizations, and lead hands-on neighborhood human services centers.

As the pioneer of the unique, liberal arts-based field of philanthropic studies, the school and its world-class faculty offer unparalleled academic degree programs and rigorous, objective research that sets the standard for the field and provides a crucial resource for philanthropy and nonprofits. Through global partnerships, teaching and learning experiences on six continents, and an international student body, the school increases understanding of philanthropy within and across cultures.

The Lilly Family School of Philanthropy integrates innovative academic, research, international and training programs with groundbreaking resources such as The Fund Raising School, the Women’s Philanthropy Institute, and Lake Institute on Faith & Giving.

The Fund Raising School, which Hank Rosso moved to Indiana University in 1987 to form the centerpiece for the founding of the Center on Philanthropy,

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continues today as the premier international, university, and curriculum-based fundraising education program. For the more than 40 years since its founding in 1974, The Fund Raising School has taught successful, ethical, systematic, mission-focused fundraising, volunteer board leadership, and nonprofit management practices to more than 43,000 people in more than 40 countries. Experienced fundraising professionals comprise The Fund Raising School’s faculty, offering multiple online and in-person sessions of 15 different regularly scheduled courses in Indianapolis and in cities around the nation as well as sponsored, customized courses in locations around the globe.

As a hub for philanthropic thought and research, the Lilly Family School of Philanthropy regularly convenes innovators, scholars, philanthropists, fundraisers, nonprofit and foundation professionals, and researchers to share their diverse perspectives, exchange ideas, and develop insights that anticipate trends, address pressing issues, and shape the future of philanthropy.

For more information, please visit: philanthropy.iupui.edu.

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ACHIEVING EXCELLENCE IN FUNDRAISING

FOURTH EDITION

Eugene R. Tempel, Timothy L. Seiler, and Dwight F. Burlingame, Editors

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Cover image: © iStock.com/fotohunter Cover design: Wiley

Copyright © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons. All rights reserved

Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey Published simultaneously in Canada

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning, or otherwise, except as permitted under Section 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, (978) 750-8400, fax (978) 646-8600, or on the web at www.copyright.com. Requests to the Publisher for permission should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken, NJ 07030, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748- 6008, or online at www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

Limit of Liability/Disclaimer of Warranty. While the publisher and author have used their best efforts in preparing this book, they make no representations or warranties with the respect to the accuracy or completeness of the contents of this book and specifically disclaim any implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. No warranty may be created or extended by sales representatives or written sales materials. The advice and strategies contained herein may not be suitable for your situation. You should consult with a professional where appropriate. Neither the publisher nor the author shall be liable for damages arising therefrom.

For general information about our other products and services, please contact our Customer Care Department within the United States at (800) 762-2974 and outside the United States at (317) 572-3993 or fax (317) 572-4002.

Wiley publishes in a variety of print and electronic formats and by print-on-demand. Some material included with standard print versions of this book may not be included in e-books or in print-on-demand. If this book refers to media such as a CD or DVD that is not included in the version you purchased, you may download this material at http://booksupport.wiley.com. For more information about Wiley products, visit www.wiley.com.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data:

Names: Tempel, Eugene R., editor. | Seiler, Timothy L., editor. | Burlingame, Dwight, editor.

Title: Achieving excellence in fundraising / Eugene R. Tempel, Timothy L. Seiler, and Dwight F. Burlingame, editors.

Description: 4th edition. | Hoboken, New Jersey : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., [2016] Includes bibliographical references and index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2015038322 | ISBN 9781118853825 (cloth) Subjects: LCSH: Fund raising. Classification: LCC HG177 .R67 2016 | DDC 658.15/224–dc23 LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015038322

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This book is dedicated to the Trustees of Indiana University, University and campus leadership, donors and funders, faculty

and staff who believed in the potential of, and took the bold steps to create, the Indiana University Lilly Family School of

Philanthropy.

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CONTENTS Foreword Preface

Organization of the Fourth Edition Reflections on the Fourth Edition

Acknowledgements The Editors Author Bios Part One: A Philanthropic Context for Fundraising

Chapter 1: A Philosophy of Fundraising Introduction by Eugene R. Tempel A Philosophy of Fundraising Organizations and Their Reasons for Existing To Govern or Not to Govern Institutionalizing Fundraising Gift Making as Voluntary Exchange Substituting Pride for Apology Fundraising as a Servant to Philanthropy

Chapter 2: The Joy of Giving Fundraisers are Givers, Not Takers Psychological Benefits of Giving Social Benefits of Giving Physical Benefits of Giving The Importance of Motives Conclusion: A Recipe for Giving Discussion Questions Key References/Further Reading

Chapter 3: Plan to Succeed Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 4: Developing and Articulating a Case for Support

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Where to Start with Case Resources? Internal Case and External Case and the Difference Between Them Putting the Case to Work: Creating Case Expressions Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 5: Individuals as a Constituency for Fundraisng Identifying the Individual Constituent A Constituency Model Identifying and Attracting Likely Donors Roles and Responsibilities that Influence Giving Conclusion Discussion Questions

Part Two: Constituents: What Donors Value Chapter 6: Contemporary Dynamics of Philanthropy

Roles of Philanthropy Size and Scope Fundraising and The Economic Climate Opportunities for Philanthropy Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 7: Prospective Donor and Donor Research and Database Management

Database 101 The Basics Prospective Donor Research 101 Tools for Prospective Donor Research Ethics in Prospective Donor Research Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 8: Corporate Giving and Fundraising History Models of Corporate Giving

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Case Study Marketing, Sponsorships, and Partnerships Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 9: Foundation Fundraising Size and Scope Trends in Foundation Support Types of Support Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 10: Gender and Philanthropy Context Organizational Culture and Leadership Today’s Female Donors Women’s Giving Across the Generations Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 11: Inclusive Philanthropy: Giving in the LGBT Community An Overview of LGBT Giving Giving and The LGBT Movement Donor Characteristics Motivations to Give Awareness and Sensitivity in LGBT Donor Stewardship Recommendations for Inclusive Fundraising Discussion Questions

Chapter 12: Faith and Giving Making Sense of the Religious Giving Sector Expanding the Definition of Religious Giving Making Sense of Religious Motivations Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 13: Ethnic Diversity and Giving

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Defining Diversity Census Data on U.S. Ethnic Diversity Research on Ethnic Diversity and Giving The Role of Immigration Embracing Diversity in Fundraising Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 14: Generational Differences in Giving Generations and Giving Patterns Giving Profiles by Generation Engaging the Next Generation of Donors Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 15: Understanding High Net Worth Donors Patterns of Giving Where High Net Worth Donors Give Donor Motivations and Constraints Policy Issues Implications for Fundraisers Discussion Questions

Chapter 16: Global and Cross-Cultural Fundraising Global Perspectives on Philanthropy and Fundraising Global Development of Fundraising Cultural Influences and Fundraising in the United States Implementing Fundraising Principles Across Cultures Conclusion Discussion Questions

Part Three: Structuring Your Fundraising Chapter 17: The Total Development Plan Built on the Annual Giving Program

The Total Development Plan: Planning, Communication, and Fundraising

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Fundraising Programs Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 18: Major Gifts Defining Major Gifts What Works in Major Gift Fundraising Managing the Major Gift Process The Philanthropic Road Ahead Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 19: Capital Campaigns Defining Today’s Campaign Fundamental Structure of a Campaign Campaign Case Study Discussion Questions

Chapter 20: Establishing a Planned Giving Program Institutional Readiness The Planned Giving Professional Policies and Guidelines Print Materials Identification of Prospective Donors Conclusion Discussion Questions

Part Four: Managing the Fundraising Process Chapter 21: Management and Leadership in Fundraising

Fundraising Managers and Their Responsibilities Fundraising Staffing Leadership Principles for Fundraisers Leading by Example Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 22: Organizational Development for Fundraising

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Essential Foundations for Philanthropy Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 23: Budgeting for and Evaluating Fundraising Performance The Budget is a Plan Gain/Loss Report Gift Size Analysis Growth in Giving Return on Investment Conclusion

Chapter 24: Marketing and Communications for Fundraising Toward an Understanding of Marketing The Role of Market Research in Fundraising Communication: Building Awareness and Motivating Action Trust and Responsibility: An Ethical Framework Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 25: Selecting and Working with Fundraising Consultants Institutional Readiness Contracts as a Relationship-Building Tool Conclusion Discussion Questions

Part Five: The Art of Solicitation Chapter 26: Personal Solicitation

Knowing Yourself: The Psychology of Asking for Money and the Professionalism of Fundraising Knowing Your Donor: Strategic Cultivation Knowing When and What to Ask: The Invitation to Make a Gift Beyond Solicitation: The Fundraiser as Professional Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 27: Direct Response

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Applying Direct Mail Principles to Other Direct Response Fundraising Direct Mail as a Template for Other Direct Response Fundraising Donor Retention, Renewal, and Upgrade Strategies Measuring Success State Charitable Registration and Reporting Requirements Case Study: Combining Direct Response Vehicles for Maximum Effectiveness Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 28: Telephone Solicitation and Stewardship Planning Anatomy of the Call Campaign Management Stewardship Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 29: Digital Fundraising Permission Three Goals Web Sites Blogging E-mail Crowdfunding Regulations Responding to Critics Policies Conclusion Discussion Questions

Chapter 30: Special Events Cultivation Events Solicitation Events Stewardship Events

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Engagement of Staff Integrated Events Critical Factors for Event Success Concl

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