Carefully go over my comments and edits (tracked changes) for your previous project assignments. At this point, most of you should have received my feedback for your proposal and participants subsect

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  • Carefully go over my comments and edits (tracked changes) for your previous project assignments.

    • At this point, most of you should have received my feedback for your proposal and participants subsection. I will be going over your results and discussion sections in the order they were received. As you know, we have many people in this class, but I will review all files and send you my feedback as soon as possible. If you are still waiting for my feedback for your last assignment, you can work on the other sections first (e.g., abstract, introduction, method, references, table, appendices).
    • When working on this final paper, you may copy and paste your previous project assignments or use your previous files. However, make sure that your final submitted paper does not still contain my original comments or track changes/edits in Word. In other words, when I open your file, I should not see my own comments or track changes I made in your previous files; revise your paper properly.
  • The assigned readings (particularly Chapter 16.3 of the GF textbook and Chapter 3 of the MJO textbook) are meant to help you with writing your research paper. Review them if you need.
  • Go over the sample papers posted on Canvas. You can use the sample papers and examples to guide you, but you must write your paper in your own words; do NOT plagiarize, or do not simply copy and paste from other people’s work (e.g., samples/examples, articles).

Descriptions:

Your final research paper should contain the following:

    • Title page
    • Abstract
    • Introduction
    • Method (consists of Participants, Measures, and Procedure subsections)
    • Results
    • Discussion
    • References
    • Table
    • Appendices

Do these sections look familiar to you? Yes! You have done all of them already! You just need to revise them, turn some parts of your research proposal into a research paper, and put them all together.

One of the main purposes of submitting these sections at different times is to provide you with the opportunities to improve and revise them based on my feedback for your final paper. This also gives you additional chances to get a better grade on your final paper (which is worth many points) instead of only having one shot at it.

As mentioned above, at this point, you have already done all of them. All that is left is to revise some parts and put all of them together! See this PDF for the instructions and checklist for your final paper: Final Research Paper.pdf download

You will also work on the “Response to Feedback document” along with your

Final Research Paper

. See the instructions for that assignment here: Response to Feedback.

Here is the grading rubric for the final research paper:

Research Paper Rubric.pdf

Carefully go over my comments and edits (tracked changes) for your previous project assignments. At this point, most of you should have received my feedback for your proposal and participants subsect
PSYC 3304 & 3104 , Final Resea rch Paper Page 1 of 5 See the copyright statement in the course syllabus. Final Research Paper Grade Points: 70 points Due Date: Thursday, 8/5/2021, 11:59 PM (Last day of this term/session; thus, late submissions are not permitted.) Preparation:  Carefully go over my comments and edits (tracked changes) for your previous project assignments .  At this point, most of you should have received my feedback for your proposal and participants sub section . I will be going over your results and discussion sections in the order they were received . As you know, we have many people in t his class, but I will review all files and send you my feedback as soon as possible . If you are still waiting for my feedback for your last assignment, you can work on the other sections first (e.g., abstract, introduction, method, references, table, appendices).  When working on this final paper, you may copy and paste your previous project assignments or use your previous file s. H owever, make sure that your final submitted paper does not still contain my original comments or track changes /edits in Word . In other words, when I open your file , I should not see my own comments or track changes I made in your previous files; revise your paper properly.  The assigned readings (particularly Chapter 16.3 of the GF textbook and Chapter 3 of the MJO textbook) are meant to help you with writing your research paper. Review them if you need.  Go over the sample papers posted on Canvas. You can use the sample p apers and examples to guide you , but you must write your paper in your own words ; do NOT plagiarize , or do not simply copy and paste from other people’s work (e.g., samples/examples, articles). Descriptions : Your final research paper should contain the following: o Title page o Abstract o Introduction o Method (consists of Participan ts, Measures, and Procedure sub sections) o Results o Discussion o References o Table o Appendices Do these sections look familiar to you? Y es! Y ou have done all of them already! You just need to revise them , turn some parts of your research proposal into a research paper , and put them all together. One of the main purposes of submitting these sections at different times is to provide you with the opportunities to improve and revise them based on my feedback for your final paper. This also gives you additional chances to get a better grade on your final paper (which is worth man y points) instead of only having one shot at it. As mentioned above, at this point, you have already done all of them. All that is left is to revise some parts and put all of them together! See below for the instructions and checklist for your final paper . We are almost done! PSYC 3304 & 3104 , Final Resea rch Paper Page 2 of 5 See the copyright statement in the course syllabus. Instruction s and Checklist for Your Final Research Paper :  Title Page (See the sample papers posted on Canvas .)  Running head (also known as page headers) and page numbers should be included in the headers of all pages; it should also be in the same font and size as your main text (i.e., 12 -point Times New Roman).  Abstract (Starts on a separate page ; it should be on page 2 .)  Refer to your Research Proposal in this course. Go over my feedback for your Abstract in the proposal and revise it for this final research paper. In addition, a s this is a research paper (which is typically written afte r data collection , unlike proposals ), we now have more information t o revise and add to your abstract. Thus, some parts of your abstract will be a little different compared to the one in your proposal.  In the Abstract section of this research paper, a fter your brief introduction and statement of purpose, provide brief descriptions of :  (a) the research method and procedure (i.e., online questionnaire via Qualtrics) in past tense  (b) the total number of participants (you know from the Participants Sub section assignment that the final sample size is 945) ,  (c) the main re sults (do not include the statistics values, such as M, SD , r, and F, in your abstract ), and  (d) a statement about the conclusion or implication of th is study.  As this is a research paper (not a proposal) , use past tense when des cribing the method and results.  Word limit: 150 to 250 words.  List 3 to 5 keywo rds at the end of the abstract.  Introduction (Starts on a separate page ; it should be on page 3 . Begin this section with your title as the heading. )  Refer to your Research Proposal assignment in this course. Go over my feedback for your Introduction section in the proposal and provide the properly revised version in your final paper. If you need to review the required component for the Introduction section, refer to the instructions for the Research Proposal assignment on Canvas.  Remember to s tate all three of your hypotheses at the end of the Introduction section. If the instructor asked you to revise the hypotheses you wrote in your proposal and/or Information and Hypotheses Worksheet , inc lude the properly revised version in this final paper.  Keep in mind that this is a research paper, which is typically written after data collection (unlike proposals) . Therefore, use paste tense when it is appropriate. In other words, when revising your Introduction section of your proposal for this final paper, you may need to change some parts to past tense (e.g., changing “ online survey will be used ” to “ online survey was used”; changing “it is hypothesized” to “it was hypothesized” ).  Page limit: 1.5 -2 full pages. PSYC 3304 & 3104 , Final Resea rch Paper Page 3 of 5 See the copyright statement in the course syllabus.  M ethod (This immediately follows your Introduction section; it does not start on a separate page. This section contains the Participan ts, Measures, and Procedure sub section s, but it exclude s the Data Analys is sub section. )  Participants  Do not use the Participants sub section that was in your Research Proposal . Instead, r efer to your Participants Sub section assignment in this course. Go over my feedback for that assignment and provide the properly revised version in your final paper. To review the required component for this sub section, refer to the instructions for the Participants assignment on Canvas.  Move your table to after the References section and before the Appendices. The table should not be directly below your Participants sub section.  Measures  Refer to the Measures sub section in your Research Proposal . Go over my feedback for that sub section and provide the properly revised version (if needed or requested by the instructor ) in your final pape r. To review the required component for this sub section, refer to the instructions for the Research Proposal assignment on Canvas.  Keep in mind that this is a research paper, which is typically written after data collection (unlike proposals) . Therefore, use paste tense when it is appropriate. In other words, w hen revising your Measure sub section of your proposal for this paper, you may need to change some parts to past tense (e.g., changing “demographic questionnaire will be administered online” to “demograp hic questionnaire was administered online”).  Procedure  Refer to the Procedure sub section in your Research Proposal . Go over my feedback and revise it (if needed) for your final paper. To review the requirements for this sub section, refer to the instructions for the Research Proposal assignment on Canvas.  Keep in mind that this is a research paper, which is typically written after data collection. Therefore, use past tense when it is appropriate (e.g., changing “partici pants will complete the survey online” to “participants completed the survey online”).  Data Analysis (Delete this sub section or do not include this in your final paper)  This sub section was for the proposal only. Do not include the Data Analysis sub section in this final paper . This is because in a research paper like this, you will talk about the statistical test(s) you conducted in your Results section , so you do not need to talk about it here in the Method section.  Results (T his immediately follows your Method section; it does not start on a separate page.)  Refer to your Results and Discussion Sections assignment in this course. Go over my feedback for your Results section in that assignment and revise it (if neede d) for your final paper. To review the required component for this section, refer to the instructions for the Results and Discussion assignment on Canvas. PSYC 3304 & 3104 , Final Resea rch Paper Page 4 of 5 See the copyright statement in the course syllabus.  Discussion (This immediately follow s your R esults section; it does not start on a separate page.)  Refer to your Results and Discussion Sections assignment in this course. Go over my feedback for that assignment and provide the properly revised Discussion section in your final paper. To review the requirements for this section, refer to the instructions for the Results and Discussion assignment on Canvas.  Page limit: 1.5 -2 full pages.  References (Starts on a separate page.)  Provide a list of the articles you have cited in your final research paper . Your in -text citations and references should be consistent. If a source/reference is not discussed in text (i.e., in the paper), do not cite it in the References.  Remember that you need to include at least five different peer -review ed research articles related to your topic (i.e., discussed in your paper and cited properly both in text and in the References section) .  At least three of them must be no older than 200 9 (published in 200 9 or more recent).  Note that the citations and articles I have provided for the questionnaires cannot be counted toward your five peer -reviewed articles, unless you discuss the study (or studies) in your paper .  You must use the latest version (7 th edition) of American Psychological Association (APA) style for your in-text and references citations .  Table (Starts on a separate page.)  Refer to your Participants Sub section assignment in this course. Go over my feedback for that assignment and revise your table (if needed) for your final paper. To rev iew the required component for this table, refer to the instructions for the Participants Subsection assignment on Canvas.  Place your table after the References section and before the Appendices (on a separate page) . The table should not be directly below your Participants sub section.  You table should contain a title, and it should be APA style.  Appendices (Each appendix s tarts on a separate page.)  Refer to your Research Proposal assignment in this course. Go over my feedback for your appendices in the proposal and revise them (if needed) for your final paper. If you need to review the require ments for the appendices, refer to the instructions for the Research Proposal assignment on Canvas.  Include the questionnaire(s) used to measure the variables you chose and the demographic questionnaire.  Label the Appendices before the title of the questionnaire (i.e., Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C). Use 12 -point font and Time New Roman for the labels and titles. PSYC 3304 & 3104 , Final Resea rch Paper Page 5 of 5 See the copyright statement in the course syllabus.  Required Format and Style  The sections and sub sections of your paper should be in the same order as listed above.  Type your paper directly in a word document. Your paper must be typed, double -spaced with 1 -inch margins and 12 -point Times New Roman font. Do not submit a hand -written version.  The format of this paper should adhere to the latest version (7 th edition) of APA style . Furthermore, a ll articles/ sources that you include in your paper must be properly cited both in tex t and in the References section using the APA style. For more informati on about APA style and format , s ee the APA, APA Everywhere page and section # 8 of the “ Common Writing Issues and Questions ” page on Canvas.  Word or page limits:  Word limit for Abstract: 150 -250 words  Page limit for Introduction section : 1.5 -2 full pages  Page limit for Discussion section : 1.5 -2 full pages  There are no page limit s for the other section s; however, be comprehensive yet concise.  Use complete sentences and check your grammar , punctuation, spelling, and word usage. The required writing style is the same as the previous project assignments. F or review or more information, see sections #9 and 10 of the “ Common Writing Issues and Questions ” page on Canvas.  Important reminder s about plagiarism : Sample papers and e xamples provided to you are meant to help you write your paper . You may wish to follow similar format /style .  However, do NOT simply copy them and change only a few words. You need to use your own words when writing your papers/ assignments. Otherwise, it is considered plagiarism , which is a serious issue with serious consequences.  Furthermore, having only slight changes in words and order are not considered proper paraphrasing; they may be considered plagiarism as well .  For more information about paraphrasing and summarizing information obtained from other sources, see sections #6 and #7 of the “ Common Writing Issues and Questions ” page on Canvas. If you need to review what plagiarism means, go over the syllabus or the plagiarism tutorials on Canvas again .  It is truly not wo rth it to plagiarize. T he consequences of plagiarism/academic dishonesty/cheating can involve automatically failing this class, expulsion from the University, denial of degree, and/or revocation of degree.  Points will be deducted if your paper does not ad here to the required format or style.  Submit Your P aper  Save your file regularly. When you are done, upload your saved word document ( must be .doc or .docx ) to the Final Research Paper under the Assignments tab on Canvas. This assignment must be completed and submitted individually as indicated in the course syllabus. Let the instructor know if you have any questions or concerns about this assignment.
Carefully go over my comments and edits (tracked changes) for your previous project assignments. At this point, most of you should have received my feedback for your proposal and participants subsect
Running head: IMPACT OF STRESS H OW STRESS RELATES TO SLEEPING DISORDER AND INCREASED SMOKING STATU S Abstract People undergo through stressful situations in their lives which can be resulted by frustration to achieve the set goals or for other reasons. This can be presented through various reactions that one might perceive to be abnormal. Lack of sufficient sleep is one of the resultant conditions of the stress which affects ones everyday activities hence limiting their ability to meet the set goals. Lack of sleep might affect the individual but then adopting other behaviours such as smoking is also common which highly affects the individual’s health. Because of this, it is important for the health and research department to look into the issue so that to come up with appropriate ways of preventing the major outcomes. To gather enough data on the relationship between stress and lack of sleep together with smoking, an online demographic questionnaire shall be used. Keywords: Stress, frustration, change of behaviour H ow stress relates to sleeping disorders and smoking habits N ormal people have set goals that they intend to achieve in their lives while other face problematic situations that highly results to stressful situations in their lives. The heath care department is working on ways of controlling smoking as it is a major cause of poor health to those affected. This research aims to examine the relationships among stress, smoking status, and sleeping disturbances. (Salameh, et al. 2019) Psychological stress is a major risk factor that results to cigarette smoking. People who undergo through stressful situations tend to look for a way of controlling the stress. One of the main ways through which they use to control their emotions is through abusing drugs that will help in stimulating their nerves (Koyanagi, et al. 2017 ). Nicotine is a major drug that is used for withdrawing stress to an individual hence helping them to cope with a situation that affects them. The body requires enough time to rest after one completes their daily activities. However, the relaxing in most cases is initiated by the relaxation state of the brain. When one is being faced by a stressful situation, it is difficult for the brain to relax hence resulting to lack of sleep. This affects other human activities as one requires the sleep so that to be at a position to think through allocated responsibilities. The study aims at looking into how stress results to sleeping disorders and how one’s smoking status is affected. The research hypothesizes that stressful conditions results to increased sleeping disorders and also increases the level of one’s smoking status. Research hypothesis: Stressful conditions result to increased sleeping disorder and smoking status. Method Participants A survey link will be sent to participants who will take part in the survey but are not going to share their details such as names for the purpose of ethical standards. Measure s When it comes to assessing the levels of stress, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale will be applied to test the presented samples. All the items presented in the scale shall be given a rating of 0 to 3 so that to check the level of the stressful situation. Demographic questionnaire The demographic questionnaire will contain the needed items that the participant will be expected to fill. However, it is important to note that the questionnaire shall contain easily understandable questions for the participants. Data Analysis ANOVA will be an important tool when examining the results that will be given by the participants. (Liu & Wang, 2021). This will indicate how smoking can be related to sleeping disorder and high smoking status. R eference s Hallit, S., Haddad, C., Hallit, R., Al Karaki, G., Malaeb, D., Sacre, H., … & Salameh, P. (2019). Validation of selected sleeping disorders related scales in Arabic among the Lebanese population. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 17 (2), 183-189. Stubbs, B., Veronese, N., Vancampfort, D., Prina, A. M., Lin, P. Y., Tseng, P. T., … & Koyanagi, A. (2017). Perceived stress and smoking across 41 countries: A global perspective across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1-8. Liu, Q., & Wang, L. (2021). t-Test and ANOVA for data with ceiling and/or floor effects. Behavior Research Methods, 53(1), 264-277.
Carefully go over my comments and edits (tracked changes) for your previous project assignments. At this point, most of you should have received my feedback for your proposal and participants subsect
ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 1 The Relationships among Anxiety, Stress, and Smoking Status by XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Research Paper Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for PSYC 3304 and 3104 at The University of Texas Permian Basin August 5, 2021 ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 2 Abstract Stress and anxiety are both conditions experienced by many human beings. Depending on the degree to which these variables are prevalent, each, either separately or together, has the potential to greatly hinder an individual and limit the ability to function efficiently. Therefore, it is important for health research to determine potential causes or exacerbating variables that may contribute to an individual’s health. S moking status, for example, i s a variable that has been shown to be related to both stress and anxiety . The purpose of the present study was to analyze the relationship between smoking status, anxiety , and stress. Data was collect ed from 492 participants via online questionnaire s avai lable through Qualtrics. The Depression Anxiety Stress Scale -2 (DASS -21) was used to measure participants stress and anxiety , and demographic information was gathered using the demographic questionnaire . Results displayed that smokers scored significantly higher on the anxiety scale than non -smokers. Smokers also scored significantly higher on the anxiety scale than non -smokers. Additionally, there was a positive correlation identified between anxiety score and stress score. These findings may be relevant t o and provide insight for medical as well as mental health professionals. Keywords: health, stress, anxiety, smoking status , correlation ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 3 The Relationship among Anxiety, Stress, and Smoking Status Anxiety and stre ss are both h indering phenomena that occur frequently for many people in their day to day lives. Both anxiety and stress have been known to be associated w ith various ailments as well as general ability to function successfully . In order to fully understand the effects of stress and anxiety on performance and health, it is important to be aware of the factors that contribute to their occurrence. The present study attempted to analyze the factor, smoking status, as it is related to both anxiety and stress in order to det ermine if any correlations exist among the three factors. Research has shown that smoking s tatus may be an indicator of stress levels . In a study con ducted by Cao et al. (2012), researchers analyzed the smoking status and perceived stress levels of a grou p of migrant workers in rural China. Their results concluded that the manifestation of perceived stress among the workers exhibited an excess likelihood to be smokers , relative to low stress counterparts . Additionally, p ast studies have also indicated that stress can occur in the absence or reduction of smoking, if already a smoker . In a study conducted by Azagba and Sharaf (2012), findings concluded in their study on perceived stress associated with smoking bans at work that although th e bans may not be the main determinant of perceived stress in the work environment, there is a positive correlation. Additionally , a study from Allen et al. (2015) analyzed the effects of nicotine withdrawal on stress; a strong positive correlation was obs erved. Previous research has indicated that anxiety is also significantly associated with smoki ng. In a study conducted by Farris et al. (2014) , the researchers concluded that anxiety sensitivity correlated positively with nicotine dependence as well as o ther health hindering factors such as alcohol use, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and severity of problems faced while attempting to stop. Although there is an underlying directionality problem ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 4 in many of these findings, a study by Asbridge et al . (2013) pro vides some insight for the current rationale regarding smoking status as it relates to the variables . This study focused on non – smokers and the effects of second hand smoke. Analyses revealed that smoke exposure to non – smokers was associated wi th increased anxiety disorders as well as poor mental health and high stress. Therefore, although stress and anxiety hav e been shown to exist with the reduction of smoking, or in the absence of it, there is also indication of a causal nature in smoking as it is related to stress and anxiety, which is important for health research. Furthermore, i n the previously mentioned study con ducted by Cao et al. (2012) regarding stress and smoking, it should be noted that the researchers used two model s; life stress and work stress. Interestingly, findings displayed that the likelihood of smoking was more significant with the life stress model as opposed to the wo rk stress model. A different study conducted by Carpenter et al. (2011 ) examined this phenomenon of life st ress as it relates to anxiety. The res earch focused on gene environment interaction s which contributed to stress which , in turn, is correlated with anxiety outcomes, further evidence of the ongoing relationship among the three factors. The present study at tempted to demonstrate a correlation between anxiety and stress as well as a correlation among smoking status and each of these factors. Utilizing an online questionnaire, the researcher relied on self -reported measures . The researcher hypothesized that smokers are more likely to report being stressed compared to nonsmokers. The researcher also hypothesized that smokers are more likely to report having anxiety compared to non -smokers. Additionally, it was hypothesized that stress and anxiety correlate positively; as stress increases, anxiety tends to increase, as well. Method ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 5 Participants The survey was conducted through Qualtrics. There were 492 participants total in this study. The age mean of these participants (except the 16 participants who did not report their age) was 31.27 with a standard deviation of 11.94. Of the 492 participants 168 (34.2%) were male whereas 320 (65.0%) were female and 4 (0.8%) reported other. Of all participants, 358 (72.8%) were non -Hispanic W hite/Caucasians, 38 (7.7%) were Black/African American, 28 (5.7%) were Hispanic/Latino(a), 24 (4.9%) were Asians/ Pacific Islanders, 14 (2.8%) were Native American, 21 (4.3%) were biracial/multiracial, and 9 (1.8%) reported other. In regards to smoking sta tus, 78 (15.9%) were smokers whereas 414 (84.1%) were non -smokers. Table 1 displays the demographic information of the participants. Measures Depression A nxiety Stress Scale. Anxiety and stress were assessed using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DAS S-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995; Appendix A). The questionnaire consisted of 21 items that included factors related to stress and anxiety such as overreaction and nervousness (e.g.; “I found it difficult to relax). Each item was rated on a 0 -3-point Likert -type scale that ranged from “did not apply” to “apply very much”. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient reported that DASS -21 used for this study has high reliability and validity: .81 for anxiety and .89 for stress (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995). Demographic questionnaire. For each participant, a demographic questionnaire (Appendix B) was administered in order to collect basic demographic information such as smoking status, age, student status and year, gender, and ethnicity. Procedure ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 6 The questio nnaire utilized for this study was the DASS -21, one of the five online questionnaires in a larger research study. The researcher collected the data via Qualtrics. Participants completed the survey in about 10 and 15 min, on average. Results The researcher hypothesized that smokers are more likely to report being stressed compared to nonsmokers. A one -way analysis of variance ( ANOVA ) was conducted in order to observe potential correlations between smokers and non -smokers. This hypothesis is supported as the results displayed a significant difference between stress scores in smokers ( M = 16.05, SD = 9.7 0), and non -smokers ( M = 12.45, SD = 8.26), F(1, 490) =11.77 , p = .001. Smokers scored signi ficantly higher on th e stress scale than non -smokers. The researcher also hypothesized that smokers are more likely to report having anxiety compared to non -smokers . A one -way ANOVA was conducted for this hypothesis, as well. The results supported the hypothesis as the results displayed a significant difference b etween anxiety scores for smokers ( M = 12.85, SD = 10.45) and anxiety scores for non -smokers ( M = 8.04, SD = 7.79), F(1, 490) = 22.16, p < .001. In other words, smokers scored significantly higher on the anxiety scale than non -smokers. Additionally, it was hypothesized that stress and anxiety correlate positively; as stress increases, anxiety tends to increase, as well. To test this hypothesis, a Pearson correlation was conducted. Results show there was a significant correlation between anxiety ( M = 8.80, SD = 8.44) and stress ( M = 13.02, SD = 8.60), r(490) = .78 , p < .001. In other words, there was a positive correlation identified between anxiety score and stress score. Discussion ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 7 The present study attempted to analyze whether the factor, smoking status, is related to both anxiety and stress. The researcher hypothesized that smokers are more likely to report being stressed compared to nonsmokers. The results supported this hypothesis; smokers scored significantly higher on the stres s scale than non -smokers. The researcher also hypothesized that smokers are more likely to report having anxiety compared to non -smokers. Results supported this hypothesis, as well, as smokers scored significantly higher on the anxiety scale than non - smoke rs. Finally, it was hypothesized that stress and anxiety correlate positively; as stress increases, anxiety tends to increase, as well. Once again, results supported this hypothesis as there was a significant and positive correlation between anxiety and st ress. In most studies, including the study conducted by Cao, Cui, Rockett, and Yang (2012), results demonstrated a positive correlation among stress and anxiety. The results of the present study are consistent with thi s knowledge structure. This study is a lso consistent with the present hypothesis, regarding smoking and stress, as results concluded that the perception of stress more likely manifested in smokers compared to lower stress counterparts. However, there is also an inconsistency due to additional factors assessed in other studies but not examined in the present study such as entire smoke history and level of nicotine dependency. For example, the study conducted by Az agba and Sharaf (2012), studied a positive correlation between stress and workplace smoking bans. Additionally, a study from Allen et al. (2015) analyzed the effects of nicotine withdrawal on stress and a strong positive correlation was observed. These results are the opposite of the present study in terms of correlation. As for anxiety and smoking, the present study is consistent with the current structure of knowledge in that the variable does correlate positively with smoking. This is the result s of most other studies analyzing these variables, such ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 8 as the study conducted by Farris et al. (2014) , concluding that there is , indeed , a positive correlation The researcher observed limitations to this study. Although the researcher did observe a statistical significance among the variable s, the participants were random and not controlled, it is difficult to determine whether individual differences contributed to the results of this study, s uch as gender or age; there could be an additional, confounding variable, damaging the internal validity of this study. Anoth er limitation could be the tru thfulness of the participants. It is possible that participants gave untrue answers in an attempt to manipulate results. The most important limitation would be the directionality problem. Although the variables correlate, this study does not determine the cause of these correlations. There is still further research needed in order to determine the directionality of these correlations. For example, these results display a correlation but it is unclear if stress causes smoking or sm oking causes stress . The re searcher recommends utilizing an experimental design in order to control confounding variables and improve internal validity. Utilizing twins, for example, would be a sufficient method of minimizing individual differences that result from factors such as g ender, personality, and age. Using another method, such as within -subjects designs, can also serve to minimize individual differences. Temporal factors should be considered, as well, for future studies, especially clinical observations, as temporal factors relate to level of dependency for smokers, which could directly affect the variables. In certain cases, that is, for heavy smokers, not smoking when having previously been a smoker could, could potentially lead to an increase in anxiety and stress, creati ng a negative correlation ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 9 References Allen, S. S, Eberly, L. E., Grandits, G. A., Harrison, K., & Lawless, M. H. (2015). Perceived stress and smoking -related behaviors and symptomatology in male and female smokers . Addictive Behaviors , 51 , 80 -83. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.07.011 Asbridge, M., Ralph, K.., & Stewart, S. (2013). Private space second -hand smoke exposure and the mental health of non -smokers: a cross -sectional analysis of Canadian adults. Addictive Behaviors , 38 (3), 1679 -1686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.10.008 Azagba, S. , & Sharaf, M. (2012). The association between workplace smoking bans and self - perceived, work -related stress among smoking workers. BMC Public Health , 12 , 123. https://doi.org/ 10.1186/1471 -2458 -12 -123 Cao, R., Cui, X., Rockett, I., & Yang, T. (2012). Work stress, life stress, and smoking among rural -urban migrant workers in China . BMC public health , 12 , 979 . https://doi.org/ 10.1186/1471 - 2458 -12 -979 Carpenter, L. L., Nugent, N. R., Price, L., & Tyrka, A.R. (2011) . Gene -environment interactions: early life stress and risk for depressive and anxiety disorders . Psychopharmacology , 214 , 175. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s00213 -010 -2151 -x Farris, S., Leventhal, A., Schmidt, N., & Zvolensky, M. (2014). Anxiety sensitivity mediates relations between emotional disorders and smoking. Psychology of addicted behaviors , 28 (3), 912 -920. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/a0037450 Lovibond, P. F., & Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states: comparison of the depression a nxiety stress scales (DAS -21) with the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. Behavior Research and Therapy, 33 (3), 335 -343. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/0005 -7967(94)00075 -U ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 10 Table 1 Participant Demographic Information Variable Age M = 31.27 SD = 11.94 Gender Female n = 320 65.0% Male n = 168 34.2% Other n =4 0.8% Ethnicity White/Caucasian (Non -Hispanic) n = 358 72.8% Black/ African American n = 38 7.7% Hispanic/Latino n = 28 5.7% Asian/Pacific Islander n = 24 4.9% Biracial/Multiracial n = 21 4.3% Native American n = 14 2.8% Other n = 9 1.8% Smoking Non -smokers n =414 84.1% Smokers n = 78 15.9% Note . N = 492. Sixteen participants did not report their age. ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 11 Appendix A Depression Anxiety Stress Scale -21 (DASS -21) Please read each statement and circle a number 0, 1, 2 or 3 that indicates how much the statement apply to you in general. There are no right or wrong answers. Do not spend too much time on any statement. The rating scale is as follows: 0 Did not apply to me at all 1 Applied to me to some degree, or some of the time 2 Applied to me to a considerable degree, or a good part of time 3 Applied to me very much, or most of the time 1. I found it hard to wind down 0 1 2 3 2. I was aware of dryness of my mouth 0 1 2 3 3. I couldn't seem to experience any positive feeling at all 0 1 2 3 4. I experienced breathing difficulty (e.g., excessively rapid breathing, breath lessness in the absence of physical exertion) 0 1 2 3 5. I found it difficult to work up the initiative to do things 0 1 2 3 6. I tended to over -react to situations 0 1 2 3 7. I experienced trembling (e.g., in the hands) 0 1 2 3 8. I felt that I was using a lot of nervous energy 0 1 2 3 9. I was worried about situations in which I might panic and make a fool of myself 0 1 2 3 10 . I felt that I had nothing to look forward to 0 1 2 3 ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 12 11 . I found myself getting agitated 0 1 2 3 12 . I found it difficult to relax 0 1 2 3 13 . I felt down -hearted and blue 0 1 2 3 14 . I was intolerant of anything that kept me from getting on with what I was doing 0 1 2 3 15 . I felt I was close to panic 0 1 2 3 16 . I was unable to become enthusiastic about anything 0 1 2 3 17 . I felt I wasn't worth much as a person 0 1 2 3 18 . I felt that I was rather touchy 0 1 2 3 19 . I was aware of the action of my heart in the absence of physical exertion (e.g., sense of heart rate increase, heart missing a beat) 0 1 2 3 20 . I felt scared without any good reason 0 1 2 3 21 . I felt that life was meaningless 0 1 2 3 Source: Lovibond & Lovibond (1995) ANXIETY, STRESS, AND SMOKING 13 Appendix B Demographic Questionnaire Below are a series of demographic questions. Please answer them as accurately as you can. Be assured that information provided is confidential. 1. Do you smoke? (If you smoke, please indicate how many cigarettes you smoke per day ) □Yes: _____________ □No 2. What is your age (years old)? __________ 3. Gender (please select one): □ Male □ Female □ Other: __________ 4. Are you currently a student? □ Yes □ No 5. Year in college (please select one): □ Freshman □ Sophomore □ J unior □ Senior □ Graduate Student □ Other: __________ □ Not Applicable 6. What is your ethnicity? □ White/Caucasian (non -Hispanic) □ Black/African American □Hispanic/Latino(a) □ Asian/Pacific Islanders □ Native American □ Biracial /Multiracial: ____________________________ □ Other: ____________________________

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