part 1 and 2 Assume that you have travelled back in time to the point before Nuts and Boltz decided to pursue the new time tracking system. I would like you to create a cause-and-effect/fishbone diagr

part 1 and 2

Assume that you have travelled back in time to the point before Nuts and Boltz decided to pursue the new time tracking system. I would like you to create a cause-and-effect/fishbone diagram that tries to uncover the root problems that existed, which lead to the need for such a system.

Assuming that you have talked with several managers at the company, they all probably told you “our profitability on engineering projects is not acceptable, and we don’t know why.” You’re not an expert with regard to Nuts and Boltz’s processes, so you will need to employ the fishbone diagram technique to uncover what the real issues are and the causes behind those issues. You can use “Low Profitability on Engineering Projects” as the main problem to the right of the diagram.

Each of the larger fishbone pieces that radiate out from the main line should be a major issue that could be causes for the problem. Remember that not all of the issues necessarily are financial in nature… For each major issue, you should draw spurs off of it that detail causes of that issue. Plan on putting sufficient time and energy into building this diagram up (at least 3 levels of detail!

Please make the diagram in electronic form (Word, Excel, draw.oi, Visio, etc).

Part 2) Now assume that you have somehow calculated the different percentages up for the issues that you have encountered and somehow logically grouped them. Create a Pareto graph in Excel that displays the issues graphically. You’ll need to group your individual cause findings into logical groups, and simulate number of occurrences of each, so you can tally numbers per cause. Then you’ll create a table in Excel as shown in the demonstration, and sort by percent of total, so the higher incident causes show in the chart first, followed by lower percentage causes.

Where do we go from here? We have a new political party in the White House for the next 3 years and an opportunity to revise our current healthcare policies. Based on everything you have learned in

Where do we go from here?  We have a new political party in the White House for the next 3 years and an opportunity to revise our current healthcare policies.  Based on everything you have learned in the past 15 weeks, what are the top 2 things that the Healthcare Agenda should include?

Read the article critique attached below as AKINarticle and then answer the multiple choice questions attached below as AkinRAC1 and AkinRAC2. I need help to find the answers to the multiple-choice qu

Read the article critique attached below as AKINarticle and then answer the multiple choice questions attached below as AkinRAC1 and AkinRAC2.

I need help to find the answers to the multiple-choice question. For that you will have to read the article “The effect of labor dance on perceived labor pain, birth satisfaction, and neonatal outcomes” that I have attached below and then answer the multiple-choice questions that are also attached below as AkinRAC1 and AkinRAC2. Thank you.

Read the article critique attached below as AKINarticle and then answer the multiple choice questions attached below as AkinRAC1 and AkinRAC2. I need help to find the answers to the multiple-choice qu
1. Which choices below best reflect the problem statement for the instructor-assigned article? Not only does labor pain have negative effects on pregnant women and fetuses, women’s psychological and emotional states have a great effect on levels of perceived pain. There is a limited number of studies regarding labor dance. This study was conducted to determine the effects of labor dance on perceived labor pain, birth satisfaction, and neonatal outcomes. A labor dance that a pregnant woman performs with her partner reduces perceived pain and increases the woman’s satisfaction with birth. 2. Which of the choices below best reflects the purpose statement for the instructor assigned article? Not only does labor pain have negative effects on pregnant women and fetuses, women’s psychological and emotional states have a great effect on levels of perceived pain. There is a limited number of studies regarding labor dance. This study was conducted to determine the effects of labor dance on perceived labor pain, birth satisfaction, and neonatal outcomes. A labor dance that a pregnant woman performs with her partner reduces perceived pain and increases the woman’s satisfaction with birth. 3. According to Grove & Gray (2019), which of the following statements is important when considering the significance and relevance of a study’s problem and purpose? Does it predict the non-significant findings anticipated in the study? Does it specifically influence nursing education in university settings? Does it identify the future research to be generated by the study? Does it promote theory testing or development? Does it identify extraneous variables? 4. When considering the feasibility of a study’s problem and purpose, Grove & Gray (2019) suggest that several areas should be evaluated, including: researcher expertise, money commitment, ethical considerations, and availability of subjects, facilities, and equipment. Which of the following statements accurately assesses the feasibility of this article? (Select all that apply.) Funding sources for the study were clearly identified in the article. The author’s credentials to design and conduct research are described. Evidence of protection of the subjects’ rights was mentioned in this article. 100% of the eligible subjects contacted participated in the study. 5. According to Grove & Gray (2019), which one of the following is NOT a major purpose of the review of literature (ROL): Describing the current knowledge of the practice problem Identifying gaps in the knowledge base of the practice problem Explaining how the current study contributes to the knowledge being built To explain the reasons behind the selection of the statistics used in the study. 6. Select two MAJOR topics covered in the review of literature (ROL) from the list below: This experimental and prospective study aims to evaluate the effects of labor dance. Labor pain has major effects on both mother and fetus. Patients were excluded if they underwent cesarean section, had induced labor, or received narcotic analgesics. Emotional support by significant others enhances the effect of pain control efforts. 7. Current knowledge in the review of literature (ROL) (all information included before the “Methods”) is considered to be articles that are within 5 years of the publication date of the article (count articles from 2015 to 2020). This is often assessed by reviewing the citations that are used in the ROL and counting the number that meet this criterion. Which number below most closely reflects the number of current citations in the ROL? 5 7 10 13 14 8. Which one of these statements best describes this study’s research framework? The framework is based on the gate control theory of pain. The framework is based on endorphin theory. The framework is based on the humanistic care model. The framework is based on the biomedical care model. The framework is not clearly described by the authors. 9. What are some of the key concepts in this study’s theoretical framework? (Select all that apply) Random sampling Emotional support Perceived pain Pre-eclampsia 10. Which one of the statements below is an example of a relational statement from the theoretical framework? Subjects were eligible to be included if they had no pre-eclampsia. This experimental and prospective study aims to evaluate the effects of labor dance. The support provided by people whose company is desired by pregnant women during the labor process is the main factor that improves the effective use of non-pharmacological methods. The labor dance starts in the active labor phase of the first labor stage and continues until the end of the first stage. 11. On page 311, the authors state that the first research objective, question, or hypothesis was: “This experimental and prospective study aims to evaluate the effects of labor dance, which is applied during the active phase of labor, on perceived labor pain, birth satisfaction, and neonatal outcomes.” This is best described as a Research objective Research question Research hypothesis None of the above 12. Which of these are considered to be MAJOR study variables in this study? (Select all that apply.) Pregnant women Dance duration Cesarean section Number of pregnancies Apgar score Perceived pain 13. What is the conceptual definition of the following study variable: labor dance? Labor dance is a method of body movement with a partner combined with massage from the partner intended to mobilize emotional support. Participants who met the inclusion criteria and received training with a spouse or partner were assigned to the DPSG group. Labor dance that a pregnant woman performs with her partner reduces perceived pain and increases the woman’s satisfaction with birth. Labor dance is measured by assignment to one of the labor dance groups. 14. What is the operational definition (as defined in the methods section) of the following study variable: perceived pain? Women’s psychological and emotional states have a great effect on perceived pain. Pain was measured by visual analogue scale when cervical dilation was 4 cm. and 9 cm. A labor dance that a pregnant woman performs with her partner reduces perceived pain. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods are used to cope with labor pain. 15. Which demographic variables were assessed by the author for this study? (Select all that apply.) Age Gender Education Occupation Race Religion 16. The authors describe this study as experimental. According to the classification system in Grove and Gray (2019), which phrase best describes the research design of this study? Descriptive Correlational Quasi-experimental Experimental Predictive correlational 17. Which phrase best describes the time element of the research design of this study? Cross-sectional design Longitudinal design None of the above 18. Does the study include a treatment or intervention described in the methods section? The authors do not describe an intervention or treatment. The authors mention an intervention or treatment but do not describe the details. The authors mention an intervention or treatment and describe the details. The visual analogue pain scale measurement at cervical dilation 4 cm. and 9 cm. can be considered an intervention or treatment. 19. Does the author specifically mention that any piloting was done prior to conducting this study? Yes No 20. The authors indicate on page 311 of the article that the Ege University Research Ethics Committee approved the study. This indicates that there was ethical approval to conduct the research. In addition, an informed consent would be provided to each participant. Per Grove & Gray (2019), which of the following would NOT be considered essential information for informed consent? (Select all that apply.) A statement of the research purpose and any long-term goals of the study A copy of the abstract of the article that will be used in the publishing journal. An explanation of the procedures to be followed in the study A complete list of references to be used in the study.
Read the article critique attached below as AKINarticle and then answer the multiple choice questions attached below as AkinRAC1 and AkinRAC2. I need help to find the answers to the multiple-choice qu
1. What sampling method or plan was used by the authors in this study? Simple random sampling Convenience sampling Cluster sampling Network sampling 2. According to Grove & Gray (2019), what are the potential biases of convenience sampling? This is a strong probability sampling method with very little potential for bias. This method is used when an ordered list of all members of the population are available, and provides a random but not equal chance for inclusion in the study. This method provides little opportunity to control for bias because subjects are included in the study merely because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. This method is specific to the individuals who were recruited and the information gained cannot be generalized to others who don’t share these types of experiences. 3. What was the final sample size reported by the authors for this study? 187 160 87 57 44 4. Was a power analysis conducted? If so, which statement best describes the results of the power analysis? A power analysis showed that the ideal sample size was 160 A power analysis showed that the ideal sample size was 80 A post hoc power analysis showed that the power achieved in the study was 0.99 No power analysis was reported by the authors 5. Which of these statements would be considered to be specific inclusion criterion for the sample in the research article? Cervical dilation was between 4-8 centimeters Had a caesarean section Able to read and write English Between 20 and 40 years of age 6. Which of these statements would be considered to be exclusion criterion specifically identified by the author for the sample in the research article? Cervical dilation was between 4-8 centimeters Had a caesarean section Able to read and write English Between 20 and 40 years of age 7. What is the acceptance rate for this study? (Hint: see page 232 in your text) 160/187 87/187 57/187 Cannot be calculated 8. Which of the following would be accurate for the attrition rate for this study? 160/187 87/187 57/187 28/187 9. What was the setting for this research study? Briefly describe the setting and indicate whether it was appropriate for conducting this study. The setting for this study was a partially controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design. The setting for this study was a natural or field setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design. The setting for this study was a highly controlled setting and was appropriate for this study’s research design. The setting for this study was not well described by the authors and therefore not appropriate for conducting this study. 10. Which ones of these questionnaires, scales, or physiologic measures are used in this research study? (Select all that apply.) Apgar score Childbirth Self Efficacy Scale Visual Analogue Pain score Oxygen saturation value Complications of Childbirth Survey score 11. What was the operational definition for the variable Satisfaction with the Baby? Apgar score A subscore of the Mackey Childbirth Satisfaction Rating Scale Visual Analogue score Cannot be determined 12. What steps did the authors take to assure treatment fidelity? Participants were randomly assigned to treatment or control groups Participants and their spouses/partners were trained in labor dance during prenatal teaching All research personnel were trained in labor dance using training videos No steps were taken to assure treatment fidelity 13. What types of questionnaires or surveys were used in this research study? (Select all that apply.) The authors developed the Mackey Childbirth Rating Scale The authors developed their own questions to ask about demographic information. Interviews were reportedly used, but the authors do not explain what was included in them. The authors used previously developed questionnaires or surveys. This study did not use any questionnaires or surveys. 14. Were any physiological measurements collected from the subjects for the purpose of this study? Yes No 15. Which of the following best describes the data collection process used in this study? (Select all that apply.) Participants were contacted by phone by nurse researcher. Participants were given the questionnaires on enrollment in the study Questionnaires / surveys were mailed to the prospective returned in a self-addressed stamped envelope. Data was collected by the researcher during labor Participants were recruited from the pool of pregnant patients admitted to the hospital during a specific period 16. Based on the study’s data collection methods, If there were more than one data collector, would an estimation of inter-rater reliability be an important concept for the authors to report on for this study? yes, and the authors reported their efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability. yes, but the authors do not discuss any efforts to achieve inter-rater reliability. no, the issue of inter-rater reliability does not apply here. 17. What descriptive statistics are used in this study? (Select all that apply.) mean median frequencies standard deviation z-scores percentage distributions 18. What inferential statistics were used to examine the data obtained from the subjects? (Select all that apply.) Pearson correlations Factor Analysis t-Test Kruskal-Wallis Chi-Square ANCOVA ANOVA Multiple linear regression equations None of the above inferential statistics were used in this study. 19. What is the level of significance (alpha) set at for this study? .01 or 1% .05 or 5% .10 or 10% an alpha level or level of significance chosen by the authors was not specifically mentioned in the text of the article and cannot be inferred. 20. There are several statistically significant findings in this study. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a significant and predicted results? (Select all that apply.) Newborns’ first minute oxygen saturation levels were 89 in the experimental groups and 88 in the control group The median first minute Apgar score was found to be 9 in DPSG, DPMG, and CG. The median fifth minute Apgar score was found to be 10 in DPSG, 9 in DPMG, and 8 in CG. All groups were found to be similar in number of pregnancies, week of pregnancy, cervical dilatation at the time of hospitalization, and the duration of the active phase 21. Which of these statements from the article would be considered a non-significant result? The median total labor dance durations were 48 and 56 minutes in DPSG and DPMG, respectively. Newborns’ first minute oxygen saturation levels were 89 in the experimental groups (DPSG, DPMG) and 88 in the control group. The median fifth minute Apgar score was found to be 10 in DPSG, 9 in DPMG, and 8 in CG. The fifth minute oxygen saturation levels were 99 in the experimental groups and 94 in the control group. 22. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered clinically important? The fifth minute oxygen saturation levels were 99 in the experimental groups and 94 in the control group. The median total labor dance durations were 48 and 56 minutes in DPSG and DPMG, respectively. All groups were found to be similar in number of pregnancies, week of pregnancy, and cervical dilatation at the time of hospitalization. Abdolahian et al. (2014) reported a VAS score of 6.89 in the experimental groups and 8.29 in the control group. 23. Which of the following statements are strengths of the study? (Select all that apply.) The sample was randomly selected. The groups were randomly assigned. The study was highly powered. Oxygen saturation results in this study agreed with those obtained in previous studies. 24. Which one of these statements would be considered a statement regarding generalization of these results? This study was conducted in a mother-friendly hospital that allows spouses to be in the delivery room. The satisfaction status of women who received care under the leadership of midwives was found to be high compared to the women in other groups. Findings obtained in this study also reveal that labor dance renders positive effects not only on newborn babies but also on women giving birth. These study results are compatible with the literature. 25. Which one of these statements from the article would be considered a recommendation for future studies? These study results are compatible with the literature. It is suggested to conduct dance practices in a wider sampling with other attendants a pregnant women would ask for. This study was conducted in a mother-friendly hospital that allows spouses to be in the delivery room. The results of this study demonstrated that labor dance positively affected labor pain, birth satisfaction, and neonatal results.

A minimum of 100-word summary of each required reading. A summary includes the identification of the thesis of the article and an overview of the main argument of the paper in your own words (You may

A minimum of 100-word summary of each required reading. A summary includes the identification of the thesis of the article and an overview of the main argument of the paper in your own words (You may be asked to resubmit if you incorrectly identify the thesis and/or fail or demonstrate comprehension of the reading). In addition, raise one question that you still have about the reading. (I need this to be done for all three articles)

A minimum of 100-word summary of each required reading. A summary includes the identification of the thesis of the article and an overview of the main argument of the paper in your own words (You may
O’Neill, “A Simplified Account of Kant’s Ethics” O’Neill, Onora. (1985) “A Simplified Account of Kant’s Ethics.” Excerpted in J.E. White (ed.), Contemporary Moral Problems (St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.). Kant’s moral theory has acquired the reputation of being forbiddingly difficult to understand and, once understood, excessively demanding in its requirements. I don’t believe that this reputation has been wholly ea rned, and I am going to try to undermine it . . . I shall try to reduce some of the difficulties . . . Finally, I shall compare Kantian and utilitarian approaches and assess their strengths and weaknesses. The main method by which I propose to avoid some of the difficulties of Kant’s moral theory is by explaining only one part of the theory. This does not seem to me to be an irresponsible approach in this case. One of the things that makes Kant’s moral theory hard to understand is that he gives a number of different versions of the principle that he calls the Supreme Principle of Morality, and these different versions don’t look at all like one another. They also don’t look at all like the utilitarians’ Greatest Happiness Principle. But the Kantian principl e is supposed to play a similar role in arguments about what to do. Kant calls his Supreme Principle the Categorical Imperative ; its various versions also have sonorous names. One is called the Formula of Universal Law; another is the Formula of the Kingd om of Ends. The one on which I shall concentrate is known as the Formula of the End in Itself . To understand why Kant thinks that these picturesquely named principles are equivalent to one another takes quite a lot of close and detailed analysis of Kant’s philosophy. I shall avoid this and concentrate on showing the implications of this version of the Categorical Imperative. The Formula of the End In Itself Kant states the Formula of the End in Itself as follows: Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means but always at the same time as an end. To understand this we need to know what it is to treat a person as a means or as an end. According to Kant, each of ou r acts reflects one or more maxims . The maxim of the act is the principle [according to] which one sees oneself as acting. A maxim expresses a person’s policy, or if he or she has no settled policy, the principle underlying the particular intention or deci sion on which he or she acts. Thus, a person who decides “This year I’ll give 10 percent of my income to famine relief” has as a maxim the principle of tithing 1 his or her income for famine relief. In practice, the difference between intentions and maxims is of little importance, for given any intention, we can formulate the corresponding maxim by deleting references to particular times, places, and persons. In what follows I shall take the terms ‘maxim’ and ‘intention’ as equivalent. 1 Giving up 10% of 1 O’Neill, “A Simplified Account of Kant’s Ethics” Whenever we act intentionally, we have at least one maxim and can, if we reflect, state what it is. (There is of course room for self -de ception here – “I’m only keeping the wolf from the door,” 2 we may claim, as we wolf down enough to keep ourselves overweight, or, more to the point, enough to feed someone else who hasn’t enough food.) When we want to work out whether an act we propose to do is right or wrong, according to Kant, we should look at our maxims and not at how much misery or happiness the act is likely to produce, and whether it does better at increasing happiness than other available acts. We just have to check that the act we have in mind will not use anyone as a mere means, and, if possible, that it will treat other persons as ends in themselves. Using Persons As Mere Means To use someone as a mere means is to involve them in a scheme of action to which they could not in principle consent . Kant does not say that there is anything wrong about using someone as a means. Evidently we have to do so in any cooperative scheme of action. If I cash a check I use the teller as a means, without whom I could not lay my hands o n the cash; the teller in turn uses me as a means to earn his or her living. But in this case, each party consents to her or his part in the transaction. Kant would say that though they use one another as means, they do not use one another as mere means. Each person assumes that the other has maxims of his or her own and is not just a thing or a prop to be manipulated. But there are other situations where one person uses another in a way to which the other could not in principle consent. For example, one person may make a promise to another with every intention of breaking it. If the promise is accepted, then the person to whom it was given must be ignorant of what the promisor’s intention (maxim) really is. If one knew that the promisor did n ot intend to do what he or she was promising, one would, after all, not accept or rely on the promise. It would be as though there had been no promise made. Successful false promising depends on deceiving the person to whom the promise is made about what o ne’s real maxim is. And since the person who is deceived doesn’t know that real maxim, he or she can’t in principle consent to his or her part in the proposed scheme of action. The person who is deceived is, as it were, a prop or a tool – a mere means – in the false promisor’s scheme. A person who promises falsely treats the acceptor of the promise as a prop or a thing and not as a person. In Kant’s view, it is this that makes false promising wrong. One standard way of using others as mere means is by dece iving them. By getting someone involved in a business scheme or a criminal activity on false pretenses, or by giving a misleading account of what one is about, or by making a false promise or a fraudulent contract, one involves another in something to whic h he or she in principle cannot consent, since the scheme requires that he or she doesn’t know what is going on. Another standard way of using others as mere means is by coercing them. If a rich or powerful person threatens a debtor with bankruptcy unless he or she joins in some scheme, then the creditor’s intention is to coerce; and the debtor, if coerced, cannot 2 This is a sort of outdated idiomatic expression meaning (roughly) “I’m safe -guarding myself against starvation” 2 O’Neill, “A Simplified Account of Kant’s Ethics” consent to his or her part in the creditor’s scheme. To make the example more specific: If a moneylender in an Indian village threatens not to renew a vital loan unless he is given the debtor’s land, then he uses the debtor as a mere means. He coerces the debtor, who cannot truly consent to this “offer he can’t refuse.” (Of course the outward form of such transactions may look like ordinary commercial dealings, but we know very well that some offers and demands couched in that form are coercive.) In Kant’s view, acts that are done on maxims that require deception or coercion of others, and so cannot have the consent of those others (for consent precludes both decep tion and coercion), are wrong 3. When we act on such maxims, we treat others as mere means, as things rather than as ends in themselves. If we act on such maxims, our acts are not only wrong but unjust: such acts wrong the particular others who are deceived or coerced. Treating Persons as Ends In Themselves Duties of justice are, in Kant’s view (as in many others’), the most important of our duties. When we fail in these duties, we have used some other or others as mere means. But there are also cases wher e, though we do not use others as mere means, still we fail to use them as ends in themselves in the fullest possible way. To treat someone as an end in him or herself requires in the first place that one not use him or her as mere means, that one respect each as a rational person with his or her own maxims 4. But beyond that, one may also seek to foster others’ plans and maxims by sharing some of their ends. To act beneficently is to seek others’ happiness, therefore to intend to achieve some of the things that those others aim at with their maxims. If I want to make others happy, I will adopt maxims that not merely do not manipulate them but that foster some of their plans and activities. Beneficent acts try to achieve what others want. However, we cannot seek everything that others want; their wants are too numerous and diverse, and, of course, sometimes incompatible. It follows that beneficence has to be selective. 3 One would expect Kant to take a hard line against rape as an immoral act, since it use s a person’s body without their consent. However, Kant scholars point out that his views on rape largely amount to what we today might call victim -shaming. He says that a woman who has been raped, since she has surrendered to the will of another person, “i s bound to give up her life rather than dishonor humanity” – Kant opines that it is better for her to commit suicide than to dishonor herself as a rape victim. Alan Soble describes this as an example of Kant’s ethics being problematically “stubborn about t he moral significance of such duties -to-self”, like the duty not to degrade oneself (p. 56). See Soble, Alan. (2003) Kant and Sexual Perversion. The Monist 86(1): 55 -89. 4 One way in which Kant applies this principle, for example, is in decrying sexual desire (when not accompanied by love for the person in question), because it does not honor the desired person’s rationality, but merely views them as an object of one’s sexua l appetite, which degrades that person to a status less than a full human being. In Lectures on Ethics , Kant writes that “as soon as anyone becomes an object of the other’s appetite, all motives of moral relationship fall away; as an object of the other’s appetite, that person is in fact a thing, whereby the other’s appetite is sated, and can be misused as such a thing by anybody” (p. 156). Generally, Kant concludes that sex is only morally permissible for the purpose of procreation within the bounds of mar riage See Kant, Immanuel. (1997) Lectures on Ethics. Trans. P. Heath. Eds. P. Heath and J.B. Schneewind. New York: Cambridge University Press. (Originally published 1931) 3 O’Neill, “A Simplif ied Account of Kant’s Ethics” There is then quite a sharp distinction between the requirements of justice and of beneficence in Kantian ethics. Justice requires that we act on no maxims that use others as mere means. Beneficence requires that we act on some maxims that foster others’ ends, though it is a matter for judgment and discretion which of their ends we foster. Some maxims no doubt ought not to be fostered because it would be unjust to do so. Kantians are not committed to working interminably thro ugh a list of happiness – producing and misery -reducing acts; but there are some acts whose obligatoriness utilitarians may need to debate as they try to compare total outcomes of different choices, to which Kantians are stringently bound. Kantians will clai m that they have done nothing wrong if none of their acts is unjust, and that their duty is complete if in addition their life plans have in the circumstances been reasonably beneficent. In making sure that they meet all the demands of justice, Kantians d o not try to compare all available acts and see which has the best effects. They consider only the proposals for action that occur to them and check that these proposals use no other as mere means. If they do not, the act is permissible; if omitting the ac t would use another as mere means, the act is obligatory. Kant’s theory has less scope than utilitarianism. Kantians do not claim to discover whether acts whose maxims they don’t know fully are just. They may be reluctant to judge others’ acts or policies that cannot be regarded as the maxim of any person or institution. They cannot rank acts in order of merit. Yet, the theory offers more precision than utilitarianism when data are scarce. One can usually tell whether one’s act would use others as mere mean s, even when its impact on human happiness is thoroughly obscure. . . . The Limits of Kantian Ethics: Intentions and Results Kantian ethics differs from utilitarian ethics both in its scope and in the precision with which it guides action. Every action, whether of a person or of an agency, can be assessed by utilitarian methods, provided only that information is available about all the consequences of the act. The theory has unlimited scope, but owing to lack of data, often lacks precision. Kantia n ethics has a more restricted scope. Since it assesses actions by looking at the maxims of agents, it can only assess intentional acts. This means that it is most at home in assessing individuals’ acts; but it can be extended to assess acts of agencies th at (like corporations and governments and student unions) have decision -making procedures. It can do nothing to assess patterns of action that reflect no intention or policy, hence it cannot assess the acts of groups lacking decision – making procedures, suc h as the student movement, the women’s movement, or the consumer movement. It may seem a great limitation of Kantian ethics that it concentrates on intentions to the neglect of results. It might seem that all conscientious Kantians have to do is to make sure that they never intend to use others as mere means, and that they sometimes intend to foster other’s ends. And, as we all know, good intentions sometimes lead to bad results and correspondingly, bad intentions sometimes do no harm, or even produce good . If Hardin is right, the good intentions of those who feed the starving lead to dreadful results in the long run 5. If some traditional arguments in favor of 5 O’Neill refers to the ethical theory of Garrett Hardin, who harshly criticized quite a few well -intentioned international political policies, aimed at correcting inequality of wealth and natural resources, for their 4 O’Neill, “A Simplified Account of Kant’s Ethics” capitalism are right, the greed and selfishness of the profit motive have produced unparalleled prosperity for many. But such discrepancies between intentions and results are the exception, and not the rule. For we cannot just claim that our intentions are good and do w hat we will. Our intentions reflect what we expect the immediate results of our action to be. Nobody credits the “intentions” of a couple who practice neither celibacy nor contraception but still insist “we never meant to have (more) children.” Conception is likely (and known to be likely) in such cases. Where people’s expressed intentions ignore the normal and predictable results of what they do, we infer that (if they are not amazingly ignorant) their words do not express their true intentions. The Formul a of the End in Itself applies to the intentions on which one acts –not to some prettified version that one may avow. Provided this intention –the agent’s real intention –uses no other as mere means, he or she does nothing unjust. If some of his or her int entions foster others’ ends, then he or she is sometimes beneficent. It is therefore possible for people to test their proposals by Kantian arguments even when they lack the comprehensive causal knowledge that utilitarianism requires. Conscientious Kantian s can work out whether they will be doing wrong by some act even though they know that their foresight is limited and that they may cause some harm or fail to cause some benefit. But they will not cause harms that they can foresee without this being reflec ted in their intentions. Utilitarianism and Respect for Life From the differing implications that Kantian and utilitarian moral theories have for our actions towards those who do or may suffer famine, we can discover two sharply contrasting views of the value of human life. Utilitarians value happiness and the absence or reduction of misery. As a utilitarian one ought (if conscientious) to devote one’s life to achieving the best possible balance of happiness over misery. If one’s life plan remains in doubt, this will be because the means to this end are often unclear. But whenever the causal tendency of acts is clear, utilitarians will be able to discern the acts they should successively do in order to improve the world’s balance of happiness over unha ppiness. This task is not one for the faint -hearted. First, it is dauntingly long, indeed interminable. Second, it may at times require the sacrifice of happiness, and even of lives, for the sake of a greater happiness. Such sacrifice may be morally requi red not only when the person whose happiness or even whose life is at stake volunteers to make the sacrifice. It may be necessary to sacrifice some lives for the sake of others. As our control over the means of ending and preserving human life has increase d, analogous dilemmas have arisen in many areas for utilitarians. Should life be preserved at the cost of pain when modern medicine makes this possible? Should life be preserved without hope of consciousness? Should triage policies, because they may maximi ze the number of survivors, be used to determine who should be left to starve? Should population growth be fostered wherever it will increase the total of human happiness – failure to anticipate consequences that may have in fact worsened the situation o f developing nations. In his article “Living on a Lifeboat”, Hardin writes that “With distribution systems, as with individual morality, good intentions are no substitute for good performance.” See http://www.garretthardinsociety.org/articles/art_ living_o n_a_lifeboat.html. 5 O’Neill, “A Simplified Account of Kant’s Ethics” or on some views so long as average happiness is not reduced? All these questions can be fitted into utilitarian framewor ks and answered if we have the relevant information. And sometimes the answer will be that human happiness demands the sacrifice of lives, including the sacrifice of unwilling lives. Further, for most utilitarians, it makes no difference if the unwilling s acrifices involve acts of injustice to those whose lives are to be lost. It might, for example, prove necessary for maximal happiness that some persons have their allotted rations, or their hard -earned income, diverted for others’ benefit. Or it might turn out that some generations must sacrifice comforts or liberties and even lives to rear “the fabric of felicity” for their successors. Utilitarians do not deny these possibilities, though the imprecision of our knowledge of consequences often blurs the impl ications of the theory. If we peer through the blur, we see that the utilitarian view is that lives may indeed be sacrificed for the sake of a greater good even when the persons are not willing. There is nothing wrong with using another as a mere means pro vided that the end for which the person is so used is a happier result than could have been achieved any other way, taking into account the misery the means have caused. In utilitarian thought persons are not ends in themselves. Their special moral status derives from their being means to the production of happiness. Human life has therefore a high though derivative value, and one life may be taken for the sake of greater happiness in other lives, or for ending of misery in that life. Nor is there any deep difference between ending a life for the sake of others’ happiness by not helping (e.g., by triaging) and doing so by harming. Because the distinction between justice and beneficence is not sharply made within utilitarianism, it is not possible to say that triaging is a matter of not benefiting, while other interventions are a matter of injustice. Utilitarian moral theory has then a rather paradoxical view of the value of human life. Living, conscious humans are (along with other sentient beings) necessary for the existence of everything utilitarians value. But it is not their being alive but the state of their consciousness that is of value. Hence, the best results may require certain lives to be lost –by whatever means –for the sake of the total happiness and absence of misery that can be produced. Kant and Respect for Persons Kantians reach different conclusions about human life. Human life is valuable because humans (and conceivably other beings, e.g., angels or apes) are the bearers of rational life. Humans are able to choose and to plan. This capacity and its exercise are of such value that they ought not to be sacrificed for anything of lesser value. Therefore, no one rational or autonomous creature should be treated as mere means for the enjoyment or even the happiness of another. We may in Kant’s view justifiably –even nobly –risk or sacrifice our lives for others. For in doing so we follow our own maxim and nobody uses us as mere means. But no others may use either our lives or our bodies for a scheme that they have either coerced or deceived us into joining. For in doing so they would fail to treat us as rational beings; they would use us as mere means and not as ends in ourselves. It is conceivable that a society of Kantians, all of whom took pains to use no other as mere means, would end up with less happiness or with fewer persons alive than would some societies of complying utilitarians. For since the Kantians would be strictly bound 6 O’Neill, “A Simplified Account of Kant’s Ethics” only to justice, they might without wrongdoing be quite selective in their beneficence and fail to maximize either survival rates or happiness, or even to achieve as much of either as a strenuous group of utilitarians, who somehow make the right calculations. On the other hand, nobody will have been made an instrument of others’ survival or happiness in the society of complying Kantians. 7

I have a board discussion that requires 2 responses 100 – 150 words per response. Please see the topic below, thanks again! Discuss companywide incentive plans, comparing and contrasting the two major

I have a board discussion that requires 2 responses 100 – 150 words per response. Please see the topic below, thanks again!

Discuss companywide incentive plans, comparing and contrasting the two major types.  In your opinion, is one better than the other?

For this assignment, you will identify and weigh the effectiveness of strategies that serve to mitigate environmental racism and work toward environmental justice. Tasks: This part of the Course Proje

For this assignment, you will identify and weigh the effectiveness of strategies that serve to mitigate environmental racism and work toward environmental justice.

Tasks:

This part of the Course Project expects you to address aspects of environmental justice by considering the following questions.

  1. What has the community done?
  2. What have allies from outside the community done?
  3. Describe the policies in place at the local, state, or federal level that address environmental racism at the local and national levels.
  4. Identify some beginning ideas about how an intervention could occur at the individual and systems level (i.e., micro, mezzo, or macro level).
  5. What are the barriers?
  6. What has been achieved?
  7. What are the failures and setbacks?
  8. What recommendations do you have?

Assignment:

Your assignment this week is to write a two-page APA paper (not including cover page and reference page; no abstract required) about the strategies that serve as an intervention to mitigate environmental racism and work toward environmental justice. You will use the guiding questions provided under the Tasks section to organize your paper. Complete a Reference page where you cite sources and/or websites in APA format.

You will be graded based on the rubric below.

Pls help, geometry proofs grade 10

Pls help, geometry proofs grade 10

SECTION A – 1. Tiger Co operates an activity-based costing system and has forecast the following information for next year. Cost Pool Cost Cost Dr



SECTION A –

1.  Tiger Co operates an activity-based costing system and has forecast the following information for next year.


Cost Pool                                          Cost           Cost Driver              Number of Drivers

Production set-ups                         £105,000       Set-ups                                      300

Product testing                              £300,000       Tests                                      1,500

Component supply and storage        £25,000       Component orders                     500

Customer orders and delivery         £112,500       Customer orders                     1,000

General fixed overheads such as lighting and heating, which cannot be linked to any specific activity, are expected to be £900,000 and these overheads are absorbed on a direct labour hour basis. Total direct labour hours for next year are expected to be 300,000 hours.

Tiger Co expects orders for Product AB1 next year to be 100 orders of 60 units per order and 60 orders of 50 units per order. The company holds no inventories of Product AB1 and will need to produce the order requirement in production runs of 900 units. One order for components is placed prior to each production run. Four tests are made during each production run to ensure that quality standards are maintained. The following additional cost and profit information relates to product AB!

Component cost:                      £1.00 per unit

Direct labour:                           10 minutes per unit at £7.80 per hour

Profit mark up:                         40% of total unit cost

Required:

(a)      Calculate the activity-based recovery rates for each cost pool.

(b)     Calculate the total unit cost and selling price of Product ZT3.

(c)     Discuss the reasons why activity-based costing may be preferred to traditional absorption costing in the modern manufacturing environment.

(d)       Explain the approach Tiger Co has chosen for it’s method of pricing and the reasons

why it may have done so

(e)        Identify two other methods of deciding upon a selling price and explain what their

their advantages and disadvantages are.



Section B  –


2.

Many firms still focus on profitability as their main measure of performance, despite increasing evidence that non-financial measures are often more important.

Required:

(a)    Explain the arguments for using the profit measure as the all-encompassing measure of the performance of a business.

(b)     Explain the limitations of this profit-measurement approach and of undue dependence on the profit measure.

(c)     Explain the problems of using a broad range of non-financial measures for the short- and long-term control of a business.


3.

Holden plc is a large multinational organisation.

a.      Explain the term ‘decentralised structure’ and  the advantages and disadvantages that Holden plc might experience if it adopts a decentralised structure

b.     Explain the term ‘transfer price’.  What are  the different methods that Holden could use to determine the price it uses to transfer goods or services from one division to another

c.      Discuss the problems that arise specifically when determining transfer prices where divisions are located in different countries

4.    Much of our  management accounting theory in the UK was developed in the

1800’s and many of these techniques are still used in the UK today.

Other countries have developed other techniques and principles, which have       also been proven to work, although they are very different to those used in this country.

The Japanese company Toyota developed a new theory, the Toyota Production System (TPS), which has been widely used not only in Japan but also in organisations worldwide.

Explain what you understand by Kaizen costing and contrast it to Business Process Re-engineering (BPR)

Write 1 page with APA style on America Declares War. As per Benjamin Freedman, the Zionists which consisted of the Jews from Germany were the main people, who wanted America to enter the Second World

Write 1 page with APA style on America Declares War. As per Benjamin Freedman, the Zionists which consisted of the Jews from Germany were the main people, who wanted America to enter the Second World War, to fight against Germany and help Britain. Hence the Zimmermann telegram could have been just a pretext. Till then America had been very much neutral in the war and was having trading ties with Great Britain.

Woodrow Wilson pointed out that, the entry of US in its war against Germany would automatically pull them into the Second World War, which would mark the beginning of a new era of bloodshed and arrogance on the part of the US. Thus if the US had remained out of the war, it would have made Germany become a superpower and dominate the world affairs. ( www.eyewitnesstohistory.com )

Thus history had changed its course due to the US participation in the war, which made it much powerful due to its military might and a superpower of the world. Thus the US would have been a much peaceful nation and would not have made many countries its enemy if it had kept out of the Second World War.

Management In July 2020, Uber announced the acquisition of food delivery competitor Postmates. See the articles below: https://www.businessinsider.com/uber-buys-postmates-for-2-65-billion-2020-7 htt

Management

In July 2020, Uber announced the acquisition of food delivery competitor Postmates. See the articles below:

https://www.businessinsider.com/uber-buys-postmates-for-2-65-billion-2020-7

https://www.qsrmagazine.com/restaurant-operations/how-uber-and-postmates-merger-impacts-industry

For your post, please address: 250 words

What type of strategic move is this and what are the potential reasons that Uber would pursue this (hint chapter 6)?

What ways can Uber use to determine (i.e. measure) the success of this strategic move?