Introduction to Emergency Management

Introduction to Emergency Management

Fourth Edition

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Introduction to Emergency Management

Fourth Edition

George D. Haddow

Jane A. Bullock

Damon P. Coppola


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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Haddow , George D.

Introduction to emergency management / George D. Haddow, Jane A. Bullock, Damon P. Coppola. — 4th ed.

p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-85617-959-1 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Emergency management. 2. Emergency management — United States. 3. Communication in management. I. Bullock, Jane A. II. Coppola, Damon P. III. Title. HV551.2.H3 2010 363.34�80973 — dc22 2010014614

British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

ISBN : 978-1-85617-959-1

Printed in the United States of America

10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

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This book is dedicated to Lacy Suiter. Lacy taught us all the responsibility, privilege, and honor of serving people as emergency managers. He singlehandedly made emergency management an important discipline to the safety of our citizens. He was a gentleman, a mentor, a teacher, a cheerleader, and an impromptu singer, but most of all, he was the best friend anyone could ever have.

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Foreword xiii

Acknowledgments xv

Introduction xvii

1 . The Historical Context of Emergency Management 1

What You’ll Learn 1

Introduction 1

Early History: 1800 – 1950 2

The Cold War and the Rise of Civil Defense: the 1950s 3

Changes to Emergency Management: the 1960s 4

The Call for a National Focus on Emergency

Management: the 1970s 5

Civil Defense Reappears as Nuclear Attack Planning: the 1980s 8

An Agency in Trouble: 1989 – 1992 9

The Witt Revolution: 1993 – 2001 10

Terrorism: 2001 12

The Steps Leading to the Katrina Debacle 20

Post-Katrina Changes 20

The Future Environment of Emergency Management 23

Important Terms 26

Self-Check Questions 26

Out-of-Class Exercise 27

2 . Natural and Technological Hazards and Risk Assessment 29

What You Will Learn 29

Introduction 29

Natural Hazards 30

Technological Hazards 51

viii Contents

Chemical 56

Biological 56

Radiological 57

Nuclear 58

Hazards Risk Management 59

Risk Management Technology 62

Social and Economic Risk Factors 62

Conclusion 64

Important Terms 65

Self-Check Questions 66

Out-of-Class Exercises 67

3 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Mitigation 69

What You’ll Learn 69

Introduction 69

Mitigation Tools 70

Hazard Identification and Mapping 73

Impediments to Mitigation 83

Federal Mitigation Programs 84

The National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program 91

Nonfederal Mitigation Grant Programs 93

Conclusion 93

Important Terms 94

Self-Check Questions 94

Out-of-Class Exercises 94

4 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Preparedness 97

What You’ll Learn 97

Introduction 97

A Systems Approach: The Preparedness Cycle 98

Mitigation versus Preparedness 102

Preparedness: The Emergency Operations Plan 102

Education and Training Programs 107

Emergency Management Exercises 111

Evaluation and Improvement 114

Contents ix

Preparedness: A National Effort 116

Preparedness Grant Programs 118

Business Continuity Planning and Emergency Management 121

Conclusion 123

Important Terms 130

Self-Check Questions 130

Out-of-Class Exercises 130

5 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Communications 133

What You’ll Learn 133

Introduction 133

The Mission 134

Audiences/Customers 139

Communicating in the Era of Homeland Security 140

Disaster Communications in a Changing Media World 142

Building an Effective Disaster Communications Capability in a

Changing Media World 151

Creating Effective Disaster Communications 151

Conclusion 162

Important Terms 163

Self-Check Questions 163

Out-of-Class Exercises 163

6 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Response 165

What You’ll Learn 165

Introduction 165

Local Response 171

State Response 172

Volunteer Group Response 173

Incident Command System 175

The Federal Response 178

Federal Assistance 185

Key Federal Response Officials 203

Other FEMA Response Resources 206

The Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) 209

x Contents

Conclusion 210

Important Terms 211

Self-Check Questions 211

Out-of-Class Exercises 212

7 . The Disciplines of Emergency Management: Recovery 213

What You’ll Learn 213

Introduction 213

The National Response Framework for Disaster Recovery

Operations 220

FEMA’s Individual Assistance Recovery Programs 226

FEMA’s Public Assistance Grant Programs 232

Other Federal Agency Disaster Recovery Funding 236

Recovery Planning Tools 240

Long-Term Recovery Planning Annex 241

Community Long-Term Recovery Planning 243

Conclusion 245

Important Terms 249

Self-Check Questions 250

Out-of-Class Exercises 250

8 . International Disaster Management 251

What You’ll Learn 251

Introduction 251

Disasters in Developing Nations 252

International Disasters 252

Important Issues Influencing the Response Process 253

The United Nations System 256

The United Nations Office for the Coordination of

Humanitarian Affairs 261

Nongovernmental Organizations 270

Assistance Provided by the U.S. Government 275

Conclusion 295

Important Terms 295

Contents xi

Self-Check Questions 295

Out-of-Class Exercises 296

9 . Emergency Management and the Terrorist Threat 297

What You’ll Learn 297

Introduction 297

Changes in Emergency Management and the War on Terrorism 298

September 11, 2001 301

Federal Government Terrorism Activity 307

The 911 Commission 323

State Government Terrorism Activity 327

Local Government Terrorism Activity 329

The Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Terrorism Preparedness

and Response 331

Conclusion 338

Important Terms 339

Self-Check Questions 339

Out-of-Class Exercises 340

10 . The Future of Emergency Management 341

Understanding the Past 341

The Obama Administration 344

“ Those Who Forget the Past Are Doomed to Repeat It ” 344

Emergency Management Ideas for the Future 347

Conclusion 353

Appendix A: Acronyms 355

Appendix B: Emergency Management Websites 361

Appendix C: Citizen Preparedness Recommendations 365

Appendix D: A Day in the Life of Homeland Security 373

Glossary 377

References 381

Index 387

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In 1993, when I took over leadership of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), emergency management was not a very well known or respected discipline. Many in the pro- fession were hold-overs from the days of civil defense, and most elected officials did not see the value of emergency management until they had a major disaster in their community; and even then, the value was transitory. Throughout the 1990s, as the United States and the world experienced an unprecedented number of severe disasters, the critical role emergency management plays in protecting the social and economic stability of our communities was evidenced. Emergency management began to grow beyond the response environment and focus on risk analysis, communications, risk prevention/mitigation, and social and economic recovery. This required a new skill base for emergency managers, and colleges and universi- ties added courses and degrees in emergency management to their offerings. This resulted in a better educated, multidisciplinary, proactive approach to emergency management. Emergency managers were valued members of a community’s leadership. Emergency manage- ment became an important profession. It allowed me as Director of FEMA, to work with our state, local, and private partners to build one of the most respected emergency management systems in the world.

As the tragic outcome of Hurricane Katrina so vividly demonstrated, a strong emergency man- agement system is vital to the safety of all of our citizens. There is no time in our recent history when the need for and understanding of the discipline of emergency management have been more important. The current risk environment we live in, from potential bioterrorist threats, increa singly severe hurricanes and floods, and more frequent wildfires, has dramatically increased the skills and knowledge required to be an effective emergency manager in today’s world.

Introduction to Emergency Management is the authoritative guide on today’s discipline of emergency management. It takes the reader through the historical context of emergency man- agement to the present day evolution into the world of homeland security. This book focuses on the elements of an emergency management process while providing the policy underpin- nings that support that process. It provides a comprehensive case study that examines the events and issues surrounding Hurricane Katrina. While focusing on the current changes hap- pening to the United States system for emergency management, it provides readers with a solid background in international practices and policies for disaster management/homeland security. This book gives the reader practical, real world experiences through documented case studies and provides extensive references and Internet sites for follow up research.

My philosophy about emergency management has always been that we need to take a common-sense, practical approach to reducing the risks we face and protecting our citizens and our communities. We need to identify our risks, educate and communicate to our people about those risks, prepare as best we can for the risks, and then, together, form partnerships to take action to reduce those risks. This approach applies whether we are dealing with a flood, a tornado, a hazardous materials spill, a wildfire, a potential suicide bomb explosion, or a pan- demic flu outbreak. George Haddow and Jane Bullock were my Deputy Chief of Staff and my Chief of Staff, respectively, when I was Director of FEMA. Together we worked to apply this approach to making our citizens and communities more disaster resistant and safer throughout the world. As you read and learn from this book, I hope you will keep those ideals in mind.

— James Lee Witt, James Lee Witt Associates

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This book could not have been completed without the assistance of a series of valuable part- ners. We would like to thank Wayne Blanchard, whose vision, encouragement, and insights on effective education in emergency management have improved our work and the work of emergency managers everywhere. We are also grateful to the Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management at The George Washington University, and its codirectors, Dr. Jack Harrald and Dr. Joseph Barbera, for their support. Greg Shaw’s humor helped us to keep things in perspective.

We thank the many professors, students, and practitioners who gave us valuable feedback on different aspects of the book and provided suggestions to make the text more relevant and useful.

Finally , the authors wish to thank their respective spouses, Kim Haddow and Mary Gardner Coppola, for their enduring good humor and patience.

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No country, community, or individual is immune to the impacts of disasters. Disasters, however, can be and have been prepared for, responded to, and recovered from, and have had their consequences mitigated to an increasing degree. The profession (and academic disci- pline) that addresses this “ management ” of disasters is called emergency management , and this book is designed to provide the reader with a comprehensive foundation on the history, structure, organization, systems, and concerns that shape the management of disasters and other emergencies. Contained within are details and descriptions of contemporary emergency management practices and strategies, as well as descriptions of the key players involved in emergency management both within the United States and around the world. Our intent is to provide the reader with a working knowledge of how the functions of comprehensive emer- gency management operate and the influence they can have on everyday life.

This fourth edition represents a documentation of the current status of the discipline as it gravitates toward a state of equilibrium. The 2001 terrorist attacks set in motion a series of events that forever changed not only the way government jurisdictions at all levels (federal, state, and local) addressed the terrorism hazard but also the way members of the public, non- governmental organizations, and businesses prepare for disaster events independent of and in concert with these agencies. Popular opinion is that these actions were mostly knee-jerk in nature and failed to preserve the positive lessons of previous years — especially those from the highly regarded James Lee Witt years of 1992 to 2000. In 2005, the failed response to Hurricane Katrina confirmed such fears, and it had the effect of recalibrating our comprehensive approach to all-hazards risk assessment by reminding all emergency management practitioners that regardless of the public, policy, and media agendas, emergency management must be guided by scientific and statistical risk analysis.

Since the third edition of this book was published, FEMA has regained many of the programs and offices it lost as a result of the creation of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and Secretary Chertoff’s Six-Point Agenda. FEMA has regained its status as the agency responsible for the bulk of the nation’s emergency management policy, direction, and federal-level operations, yet it remains stifled under the umbrella of an organization dedicated to security-based con- cerns. Within DHS, FEMA is subject not only to indirect access to the president and a diminished decision-making authority, but it must also conform to the strategic focus of an agency whose fundamental mission is markedly different from its own.

In 2005, we saw a national system of emergency management — once regarded as one of the most effective and emulated systems in the world — proven incompetent in responding to an event that had been long predicted, planned for, and studied: Hurricane Katrina. Five years later, FEMA is still struggling to rediscover its role while the recovery along the Gulf Coast

xviii Introduction

steadily progresses. This edition examines how FEMA has evolved as a result of the legisla- tion enacted in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina and how a change in administrations and political ideologies has helped to direct these changes.

While the book emphasizes the U.S. domestic system of emergency management, many of the experiences discussed, lessons learned, and emerging trends are replicable to emergency management systems around the world. Emergency management in the United States has experienced every form of disaster: natural, man-made, and intentional. The lessons learned from these experiences, the changes made in response to these events, and how the system continues to evolve because of climate changes and other emerging threats provide a solid landscape to examine what emergency management is or could be.

This book, however, does not focus exclusively on FEMA. State and local emergency man- agement organizations are the subjects of many of the case studies, and their collaborative affiliations with FEMA are discussed at length throughout the text. One full chapter, in fact, is dedicated to how emergencies are managed at the international level when the capacity of whole countries or regions falls short of what is required to manage the disaster at hand. With greater frequency, events such as the 2004 Asian earthquake and tsunami, cyclone Nargis in Burma in 2008, and the Sichuan earthquake that same year have highlighted the need for a more robust international emergency management system, and governments across the globe have focused more attention on the issue. A detailed case study of the response to the 2001 earthquake in Gujarat, India, is provided to illustrate these systems.

Chapter 1 includes a brief discussion of the historical, organizational, and legislative evolu- tion of emergency management in the United States by tracing the major changes triggered by disasters or other human or political events, including the creation of the Department of Homeland Security. The chapter includes an analysis of the organizational, legislative, and pol- icy changes made in emergency management both pre – and post – Hurricane Katrina. Chapter 2 identifies and defines the hazards confronting emergency management. Chapter 3 discusses the function of mitigation and the strategies and programs emergency management or other disciplines use to reduce the impacts of disaster events. Chapter 4 catalogues the broad range of programs and processes that comprise the preparedness function of modern emergency management. Chapter 5 breaks from the more traditional approach to emergency manage- ment and focuses on why communication with the public, the media, and partners is criti- cal to emergency management of the twenty-first century. Chapter 6 focuses on the essential functions and processes of responding to a disaster event. Chapter 7 describes the broad range of government and voluntary programs available to assist individuals and communities in rebuilding in the aftermath of a disaster. Chapter 8 provides an overview of current activity in international emergency management through an examination of selected international orga- nizations. Chapter 9 describes how the events of September 11, 2001, have altered the tradi- tional perceptions of emergency management. Chapter 10 looks at the post-9/11, post-Katrina environment and provides insights, speculations, recommendations, and three options on where emergency management is or should be headed in the future.

Our goal in writing this book was to provide readers with an understanding of emergency management, insight into how events have shaped the discipline, and thoughts about the

Introduction xix

future direction of emergency management. The events of September 11 and the failures of Hurricane Katrina demonstrate the critical need for and value of emergency management. The evolving threats, the realities of global climate change, and our changing social, economic, and political environment demand new and innovative approaches and leadership. We hope this text will motivate each reader to accept the challenge.

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