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Successful completion of a doctoral dissertation requires significant amounts of independent reading on the research topic. This allows the doctoral learner/researcher to become familiar with the scope of the topic and to identify gaps or tensions within the existing literature on the topic. These gaps and tensions become the source of the dissertation research. In this assignment, you will read and annotate potential sources in your dissertation field of interest. Those demonstrating the most merit to the best of your understanding of the topic at this time should be added to your RefWorks list for potential inclusion in the literature review section of your dissertation.

General Requirements:
Use the following information to ensure successful completion of the assignment:

· Locate the “Literature Review Resources Tool” in the Class Resources for this class. Download the tool and use it to complete this assignment.

· It is recommended that you engage in this activity throughout the duration of this course.

· Instructors will be scoring your submission based on the number of unique sources identified in the list submitted.

· Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.

Directions:
Read at least 10 empirical articles in your general dissertation field that you have not read previously.
In the “Literature Review Resources Tool,” provide the following for each source that you are adding to the document:

1. The APA formatted citation. 

2. A brief annotation (150-250 words) of the key points of the source.

3. An indication of whether the source has been added to (Y) or excluded from (N) your RefWorks list.

Highlight the additions to the document so your instructor can readily identify them.

College of Doctoral Studies

Literature Review Resources Tool

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© 2014. Grand Canyon University. All Rights Reserved.

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 1

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 3

Relationship Between Cognition and Instruction in Knowledge Transference: A Case of the Autism Spectrum Disorder Learner

Name

Grand Canyon University: RES 820

Date

Relationship Between Cognition and Instruction in Knowledge Transference: A Case of the Autism Spectrum Disorder Learner

Annansingh, F. (2019). Mind the gap: Cognitive active learning in virtual learning environment perception of instructors and students. Education and Information Technologies24(6), 3669-3688.

Convenience both in time and in flexibility has prompted the growth of virtual learning in a faster way than the deduction system could foresee. As such, the paper focuses on the virtual learning environment provides insight into the flexibility expected in recognition of needs and how to meet them. The author points out that VLEs promote independent learning and within that a new definition to the students’ experiences with cognitive active learning to successful knowledge acquisition. Within the contest, there is a constructivist approach that is enhanced within the methodology of feedback analysis. In recognition, the authors investigate the disparity between the student and instructor perception of their cognition which essentially allows the understanding of the aspects of intrinsic motivation and appropriateness of instructions and support from the faculty to the student. Therefore, there is a weighting criterion that facilitates the definition of expectations and allowances necessary for successful knowledge transference.

Dawson, M., Mottron, L., & Gernsbacher, M. A. (2008). Learning in autism. Learning and memory: A comprehensive reference2, 759-72.

The level of understanding of any student can be matched by the capacity and thus matched to the appropriate model of teaching that is suitable for them. In the case of the autistic student, knowledge transference can be challenging and thus consensus must be attained. In the atypical environment, there is already a large distinction that fundamentality can be seen would impair learning for this population. As such many efforts are made to allow sufficient comfort and stability and within this reading, there is recognition of the distinct need to make sure that dissemination of knowledge and information is rightly perceived and implemented. The attention to detail and development of memory for the doctoral student needs a thematic perspective by looking at the history of the student learning process, the link association between experience and learning, and the ability for research. In recognition of this, the paper adds value to the determination of an empirical basis for research.

Duff, C. K., & Flattery, J. J. (2014). Developing mirror self-awareness in students with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders44(5), 1027-1038.

The importance of recognizing one’s strengths and weaknesses is essential in the education process. The fact that curriculums are designed to make it easy for a student to measure this is a fact that cannot be ignored. The teaching methodology as explained in this paper is shown to be one of the most important strategies in knowledge acquisition and thus transference into practice. The identity that is derived through self-awareness and self-diagnosis allows for the consideration of personal input as a necessity to learning. For ASD students, having the idea is as important as executing it as it provides stability for the initiation of the first step to tackling an activity. The paper provides the opportunity for the derivation of positivity factors in step-by-step framework development to stimulate personal growth from a path that allows for progressive personal growth hence assimilative way of learning and influencing knowledge transference.

Eraut, M. (2012). 1 Transfer of knowledge between education and workplace settings. In Knowledge, values and educational policy (pp. 75-94). Routledge.

The transfer of knowledge relies on the particularity of subject matter and with that the descriptive factors in methodologies of choice. Different ways of knowledge descriptions can be said to necessitate the integration of deliberate action to the dissemination of information. When looking at the development of skills that could be useful for the future, during the education process, simplification of the education process depends on reliability. The author brings to attention the fact that approach builds consequences and within that a need to make sure that reliance is balanced with support and need. The assurance of this is the fact that the education setting allows for the transference of knowledge to be conceptualized under attribution in a way that bridges the cultural gap, nature, amount of learning needed. This article lends the specifics to the fact that learning involves realizing the relationships are instructional hence must be established in form of procedures. Cognition is progressive and must be aligned in a way that is methodological and incrementally progressive.

Fauziyah, N., Le Lant, C., Budayasa, I. K., & Juniati, D. (2019). Cognition Processes of Students with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder in Solving Mathematical Problems. International Journal of Instruction12(1), 457-478.

Students with ASD often have a unique depth of understanding, especially in mathematics. This article focuses on process development especially when it comes to data gathering. Subjects such as mathematics allow for growth in cognition by allowing for problem-solving to be visualized effectively. Understanding the problem set at the beginning and developing ways in which it can be solved allows for the opportunity to be represented in a form that depends on the process. This process is essential for grasping the idea of connections and connectivity. Therefore, the paper facilitates the opportunity for the transference of knowledge through planning and identification of critical points that do not change or evolve. The result is a differentiation of intelligence in a way that subject and object are related making it easy for even the most difficult learners. Perceptible cognition gives a predictive variable necessary to determine whether the pathways of planning give room for high functioning.

Galitsky, B., & Shpitsberg, I. (2016). Autistic learning and cognition. In Computational Autism (pp. 245-293). Springer, Cham.

The difficulties of human and machine learning give hypersensitivity to the student-instructor relationship and within that the learning systems and the way it affects the introduction and model of learning hence cognition. Comprehension of active learning in the ASD allows for the development of a model for adaptation in a way that stereotypically provides reasoning in a way that is both abductive and inductive. As the article points out, the derivation of patterns, stereotypes, and behavioral concepts is an opportunity that allows for cognition to focus on the individual and within that realization that different scenarios require a different approach. Therefore, the connection between knowledge and instruction is the ability to form a system that is consistent and focuses on learning appropriately. Active learning in computer science for ASD students is a pat within the text that contextualizes model development for better bridging between cognition and instruction. There is thus active presentation of reason for causative action development.

Mowbray, S., & Halse, C. (2010). The purpose of the PhD: Theorising the skills acquired by students. Higher Education Research & Development29(6), 653-664.

Fundamentally, pushing for the bridging of cognition and instruction to a level that is satisfactory requires the involvement of stakeholders in both the educative sectors and those looking after the needs of the students. Therefore, there is a participatory level that is required to define the grounded rules for the facilitation of the acquisition of intellectuality. Summatively, it is within this article that formative development can be analyzed in a way that recognition of the beginning of the bridge between the two aspects of knowledge transference can be defined. The development of a framework allows the conceptualization of ideologies through looking at virtues of intellect. In consideration of this, the article provides a perspective of looking at the institutional role in connection both cognition and knowledge. The result is a development of contrasting research that would add value to the overall association of elemental external factors in cognition study.

Perkins, D. N., & Salomon, G. (2012). Knowledge to go: A motivational and dispositional view of transfer. Educational Psychologist47(3), 248-258.

Like touching the topic of self-awareness, motivation is essential for the synthesis of information ordinarily. However, information transference requires an exploration of the cognitive performance in a way that the dispositional drivers are recognized with pursuance. The learning process requires detailing the circumstantial connection of concepts in a way that investigative action is cognitive by its foundational “bridges”. As mentioned by the authors, the individualization of facts surrounding cognition and knowledge transference allows for recognizing that independence, detailing, and broadening. These three form the basic unit of understanding knowledge in length. It is an association of the simplification of the complexities through a detection and analysis model in a way that facilitates the connection of relationships with the process. A realization within this paper points to the fact that for cognition and knowledge to work well, transference should be facilitated within a process that is laid out and clarified through the exploration of different themes.

Schopler, E., & Mesibov, G. B. (Eds.). (2013). Learning and cognition in autism. Springer Science & Business Media.

The author begins by providing elaboration on the diagnostic system that categorizes the ASD students and within that a definition of the intervention needed for their education in a way that matches their specialty and acquisition of skills. Functionality is discussed right from the beginning and within that a deliberation on the response to stimuli. By understanding the responses cognitive and behavioral aspects can be understood systemically such that casual roles are tangible. Within the realization of this, there is a representation of knowledge transference in a way that is directed but only through an understanding of limitations. Comparability of failures and successes allows for the recognition of environmental factors such as social aspects to match functionality. Sufficiency ingrained within the representation is an opportunity that facilitates cognitive description for dynamic interpretation hence simplifying barriers of communication. The development of learning, therefore, is streamlined within the ability to sift out capability and ability for skill development.

Townsend, J., Westerfield, M., & Chukoskie, L. (2019). Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. Handbook of Medical Neuropsychology, 223-262.

The authors introduce the categorization of autism and thus the definition of the characteristics of what it implies to be in the ASD category. To grasp the fact that autism presents its own set of challenges at all levels of education, the author details the co-morbid symptoms as well as the cognitive traits and within that a realization of profiles of character development. The information provided within this text contextualizes the expectation of the ASD and thus allows for the research to look at all angles. The functional development that is ingrained within this article allows for the trait development to be associated with the subject matter and thus a connection necessary for conclusive discussion. Realizing that relevancy is important, the discussion from this paper paves way for the introduction of an argument from a point of view that is appropriate for the subject matter. The cognitive ability of the subject is necessary to connect knowledge and cognition as essential to knowledge transference.

Degree

The program I study is Doctor of Philosophy in General Psychology with an emphasis in Cognition & Instruction.

Research Focus

The research focus area is the comprehension of the understanding of the bridge between cognition and knowledge in such a way that there is recognition of modalities and methodologies for the transference of information.

Feasibility of Research Problem

Understanding the cognitive challenges in the ASD student allows for the opportunity to grasp the real connection between cognition and knowledge in a way that is basic yet takes all variables into account.

Problem Statement

While literature indicates that ASD students are likely going to face more challenges at all levels of education, the crosscutting issue for understanding the relationship between cognition and instruction in knowledge transference is a need for systemization.

Need for Study

Specificity is necessary when it comes to the recognition of what ticks and for what population. Cognitive studies in the ASD population have been done by several researchers and within the context of education, there is little understanding of how the adaptation of the system can alienate. However, with the identification of the characteristics of the individual, there would be recognition of the limits and thus a step-by-step development of the process of bridging students and educators. The development of cognitive traits within the study is a realization of profiles of character development which aids in students knowing their motivators. Self-awareness through knowing the limits is something that both the student and the instructor must grasp in the long run hence a need for a study to improve the bridging elements.

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

Conceptualization of ideologies of what can be real and what is considered ideal is one of how research on the disparity between the student and instructor through the perception of cognitive functions can be understood. A large distinction of the fundamentals can be seen in impairment of learning in the ASD population, essentiality that allows the understanding of the aspects of intrinsic motivation and appropriateness of instructions and support. Therefore, learning and knowledge transference is a factor in identity development through self-awareness and self-diagnosis. The ease of factoring the attention that grows due to this fact is an approach that builds consequences necessarily from the reliance on balance, support, and need. The consideration of personal input as a necessity to the learning process indicates that it should be paced based on student cognitive needs. As such, there is a better opportunity for the transference of knowledge through planning and identification of critical points. that do not change or evolve

Significance

Eraut, (2012) acknowledges that knowledge transference requires rationality based on the specificity of the subject matter. Within the context of descriptive methodologies, integration, and deliberation of knowledge, there is an examination of how the dissemination of information can be done. The assurance accounted within this article emphasizes simplification of the process of transference of knowledge to be conceptualized under attribution in a way that bridges the cultural gap, nature, amount of learning needed. The specifics allowed within this discussion provide an insight in a way that categorizes how relationships between cognition and instruction in knowledge transference work. By emphasizing the specifics in cognitive progressiveness there is a methodological and incrementally improvement quality necessary for the educative process and the future as well. This points to an added value in skill impartment hence not strictly educative alone. The attention to detail within this can be seen in the simplification of education and the need for process and procedure.

Defense of Article Selection

There is a variety of opportunities to understand ASD in many ways and within that a realization of how it affects knowledge transference. However, recognition of this is a step-by-step development in a way that is progressive by nature. All the articles and books are up to date on the characteristics of the ASD and within this recognition of attributes that carry out into the education environment. By realizing this, there was a need for emphasis on effects and affects that allow for the possibility of the relationship between cognitive and ability to follow instruction to exist suitably. All the articles emphasize cognition, behavior, and knowledge in a way that brings to attention the fact that differentiation is necessitated through understanding individuality.

All the ten articles are specific to the topic and within that an ease to identify common theme and goal that would allow subjective development of theory and thus translation to the discussion. Categorization of discussion from a different perspective provides the opportunity to understand the different ways in which application can be made. At the same time, there is the differentiation of topics in a way that allows approaches to be separately analyzed such that contrast could be evaluated. This aligns with the research in a way that promotes the development of relevance and appropriateness without taking away from the topic at hand. The result is a realization of a concept in a way that offers insight after another.

Running head: DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 1

DISSERTATION DEVELOPMENT 3

Basis of Knowledge Transference Through Cognition and Instruction Models: A Case of the Autism Spectrum Disorder Learner

Your Name Goes Here

Grand Canyon University

Date

Relationship Between Cognition and Instruction in Knowledge Transference: A Case of the Autism Spectrum Disorder Learner

Dillon, R. F., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.). (1988). Cognition and instruction. Academic Press. Retrieved from https://www.elsevier.com/books/cognition-and-instruction/dillon/978-0-08-088583-4

The authors take a look at the definition and elements within cognition and instructions as separate yet complimenting disciplines. An identification of the relationship of focus with the two, the authors point out that processing in reading, writing, design of curriculum, reasoning and reformation as aspect that must be recognized. There is understanding and derivation of proscriptive ways in which teaching and cognitive components can be related to the mental activity. As such a delving into the translation of distinct learning and showcases high order skills acquisition. The authors have brought to attention value addition as a need for information processing and thus a requisite in transformation of knowledge or its transference. Therefore, there is a question of style and its applicability to different audiences in examination of the educational considerations and its effect to the learners. The authors contextualize the scientific merit of cognitive studies and its application to the transference of knowledge.

Haskell, R. E. (2000). Transfer of learning: Cognition and instruction. Elsevier.

The author looks at education, educators, and psychologists within education as the major stakeholders in transference of learning and thus significant in imparting change. As discussed, the learning and that transfer of knowledge across cuts multiple disciplines in a way that neglecting one can be detrimental to the development of the other. This is a simplistic way of explaining reasoning, personal development., social policy, and thinking allowing important early experiences to be laid out. However, majorly, the author points out that by the early 2000s, research pointed to a lack of transference of knowledge in classrooms and thus a failure in fundamentality of meaning and basic level implementation of cognition and instruction. The author draws attention to the models of knowledge transfer and its failure looking at historical formative education and thus a call for their revision. The perspective is an earlier understand of knowledge on the interest of language comprehension and the interaction in the learning environment.

Carnahan, C. R., Williamson, P. S., & Christman, J. (2011). Linking cognition and literacy in students with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(6), 54-62.

In this article, the authors have an interesting insight on the development of cognition and use of instruction in transference of knowledge to ASD student. By focusing on the cognitive style, there foundation of learning and the differences in ASD learners, the authors bring to attention the fact that quality of life can only be weighed based on individual needs. The documentation of the difficulty of the student to comprehend provides insight into aspects of decoding the student use and thus applicable teaching models. This way, the article approaches determinants of communication differences in students as a definitive element of categorizing the student’s limitation and allowing reconfiguration of methods of teaching. The focus of the discussion delivers suggestions to the supporting elements of comprehension facilitating a look at style of reading as a part of the learning process hence educate on the need for individual-based approach in education.

Van Eylen, L., Boets, B., Steyaert, J., Evers, K., Wagemans, J., & Noens, I. (2011). Cognitive flexibility in autism spectrum disorder: Explaining the inconsistencies? Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders5(4), 1390-1401.

Right from the start, the article tackles consistency as an elemental part of instruction and thus a facilitator sin cognitive development on ASD individuals. Using Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) as the location of focus, the authors point out the deficiencies of limiting tasks by pointing out that there is a disengagement that is attained when a switch is required. By allocating this deficiency to a specific performing activity, the authors allow for understanding the explicit that is needed when giving instruction. Pointing this out, there is a sensitization of the need for requirements to be apparent and thus an assessment o capability of individuals with ASD. In bringing this out, the authors point out that in changing from one task to another, there is a revelation of cognitive flexibility impairments in individual with ASD. This is a limitation that should be recognized during instruction delivery and thus adjusted knowledge transference based on this through explicitness.

Richey, J. A., Damiano, C. R., Sabatino, A., Rittenberg, A., Petty, C., Bizzell, J., … & Dichter, G. S. (2015). Neural mechanisms of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders45(11), 3409-3423.

This article contributes to discussion by pointing out the definition of Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The authors pint that emotional regulation deficient within those with ASD is a challenge that must be faced during modulation of responses. Approaching this from an experimental point of view, the authors loos at neural activity for cognitive reappraisal in high functioning ASD adults. The result indicated that instruction pf increasing positive and negative emotional showed no activity on change of the activation of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. This verified the mechanistic impairment of the emotional response in ASD individuals. An indication that the comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders are at high rates within individuals with ASD, the authors characterize the cognitive functional capabilities of these individuals hence their limits. The focus on a generalization of the reaction and comprehension on instruction therefore, standardization of difficulty criteria analysis for the ASD learners founded on research evidence.

Degree

My program is Doctor of Philosophy in General Psychology with an emphasis in Cognition & Instruction.

Research Focus

The primary interest of philosophy is understanding reality through looking at the nature of knowledge and existence. The idea that knowledge can only be understood by knowing how transference of information is possible. By looking at language comprehension, interaction in learning and potential impact of limitation, that is cognitive and instruction. It points to an addition of value through arguing comprehension, presentation, and processing hence what actual successful implementation should be like.

Feasibility of Research Problem

Many therapy models apply to the autistic learner including cognitive behavior therapy to improve depression and group-based cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at improving social-cognitive functioning in ASD individuals (Russell et. al.,2020). The different qualitative data available in research provide a basis through which further understanding of instruction and its relation to improvement. Data on ASD individuals and studies are easily available to provides enough comparative and justification for the research.

Problem Statement

Knowledge transference requires that the relationship of acquisition processes of knowledge, implementation of instruction facilitated through reasoning, curriculum design, reformation, reading, mathematics, and writing is effective for basic skills development. The challenges of ASD individuals on fundamentals necessary for interacting with reality which has been studied extensively. Individual needs through instruction necessary to facilitate cognitive development especially in present education models lacks attention. This paper therefore looks at the relationship between cognition and instruction in knowledge transference and implementation of success teaching models. Using the ASD learner, the meaning of cognition when limitations are present, and the process of instruction would be analyzed to understand the success in facilitating cognitive development and effective instructing model of knowledge transfer.

Defense of Article Selection (250)

When there is problem, recommending interventions can only be easy of the impact of the intervention has been carefully studied and understood. This means looking at its historical setting by showing the initial point of discussion. Dillon et.al. (1988) by giving a point of reference in the 1980s, allows for comprehension of the progressive thinking, advancement of the study in line with student demographic differentiation and its necessity. It is a relook at the success of cognition and instruction in comparison with the expected outcomes, hence the relationship between cognition and instruction as implemented for the learner. This is supported by a comparative analysis of whether implementation has been successful now. By looking at growth and policy that have stimulated growth in school learning environment, the book allows us to look (Haskell, 2000). Considering programs like ESL and segregation of student with challenge sin school today, the book can be used to understanding whether success of model revisitation has been observed. As seen with the case study of ASD students to point out that models of cognition and instruction can be different from one case to another in the case of Connor the actual definition of what reading and comprehension can look like is different (Carnahan et. al., 2011) An effective implementation of cognition and instructions on a practical level can exist in the education systems for successful knowledge transference. This gives an important context to collaboration of the initial assumption that cognitive development in ASD learner requires explicit implementation of instructions and thus point to the differences from other students that an ASD learner would have (Van Eylen et. al., 2011). The discussion of specification of models of teaching during knowledge transference is an essential need for advancement of the teaching models with the uniqueness of the ASD learner as a special circumstance that requires development of controls of predictability. In this way the outcomes could be more efficient with considerable higher success rates in cognitive development of the learner (Richey et. al., 2015).


References

Carnahan, C. R., Williamson, P. S., & Christman, J. (2011). Linking cognition and literacy in students with autism spectrum disorder. Teaching Exceptional Children, 43(6), 54-62. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/004005991104300606

Dillon, R. F., & Sternberg, R. J. (Eds.). (1988). Cognition and instruction. Academic Press. Retrieved from https://www.elsevier.com/books/cognition-and-instruction/dillon/978-0-08-088583-4

Haskell, R. E. (2000). Transfer of learning: Cognition and instruction. Elsevier. Retrieved from https://books.google.co.ke/books

Richey, J. A., Damiano, C. R., Sabatino, A., Rittenberg, A., Petty, C., Bizzell, J., … & Dichter, G. S. (2015). Neural mechanisms of emotion regulation in autism spectrum disorder. Journal of autism and developmental disorders45(11), 3409-3423. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10803-015-2359-z

Van Eylen, L., Boets, B., Steyaert, J., Evers, K., Wagemans, J., & Noens, I. (2011). Cognitive flexibility in autism spectrum disorder: Explaining the inconsistencies? Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders5(4), 1390-1401. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1750946711000316

Russell, A., Gaunt, D. M., Cooper, K., Barton, S., Horwood, J., Kessler, D., Metcalfe, C., Ensum, I., Ingham, B., Parr, J. R., Rai, D., & Wiles, N. (2020). The feasibility of low-intensity psychological therapy for depression co-occurring with autism in adults: The Autism Depression Trial (ADEPT) – a pilot randomised controlled trial. Autism, 24(6), 1360–1372. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361319889272

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