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Psy308 Spring 2018 Cumulative Essay Final

Ancient Greeks to the current day.

  1. 1) What is the relationship between the human mind and the physical body?a) E.g., Most human behavior is a result of the physical body (i.e., the brain), including mental phenomena, such as thinking. Write a historically supported argument in support of OR against this position.
  2. 2) To what extent are human attributes physically inherited (i.e., nature) OR determined by experience (i.e., nurture)?a) E.g., The most important aspects of human attributes, such as intelligence, are mostly developed from environmental influences. Write a historically supported argument in support of OR against this position.

3) To what extent is human behavior guided by (or should be guided by) arational emotions orrational cognitions?

a) Humans live their best possible lives, and make the best life decisions, when they listen to (i.e., follow) their rational cognitions and ignore their arational emotions. Write a historically supported argument in support of OR against this position.

4) Are humans qualitatively (i.e., different in kind) or quantitatively (i.e., different in degree) related to other animals?

a) Psychologists should not study rats and apes and other animals to understand people, because the most important psychological attributes of humans are qualitatively unique (i.e., different in kind) from animals. Write a historically supported argument in support of OR against this position.

BRING TO THE FINAL

(1) You can bring up to 2 pages (8.5 X 11) of a handwritten outline, front and back.àDO NOT bring your essays written out in full.

(2) You can bring your book and printed lecture slides. (3) I will provide exam books for you to write in.

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An “open book, open slides, open outline” essay exam will require you to write a historically supported

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argument in support of OR against a position statement on two key debates

in Psychology from the

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Dr. Nelson will choose 2 of these debates

for you to write about:

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Whichever 2 debates and position statement Dr. Nelson chooses, your 2 essays need to include:

(a)

Chapter 1 The 4 debates listed above are described in this chapter.(b) A well supported argument in defense of your view.

a. First, provide at least 2 pieces of evidence from the history of psychology that
. A piece of evidence includes a description of a historical

figure and their philosophical view, their scientific view, or their discovery that supports your view. I encourage one paragraph for each piece of evidence.

i. Your evidence must represent (i.e., come from) 2 historical time periods listed below by book chapter.

b. Then, provide at least

. A piece of evidence includes a description of a historical figure and their philosophical view, their scientific view, or their discovery that

supports your view. I encourage one paragraph for each piece of evidence.

i. Your evidence must represent (i.e., come from) at least 3 historical time periods listed below by book chapter.

It is up to you to choose the things you think are most important and interesting for each debate. You cannot review everything, so choose wisely!

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An introduction paragraph in which you define the issue, say why it is important, and

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provide a clear statement in support of, or against, the position statement.

contradict your view

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Chapter 2-3 Chapters 4-7

Chapters 8-11

Chapters 12-19

TIME PERIODS

Ancient Approaches to Understanding Humans

(Ancient Greece & Rome Religious & Philosophical Views)

Philosophical Development of Science

(Renaissance Philosophy & Science, Rationalism, Empiricism, Sensationalism, Positivism, Romanticism, Early Existentialism)

Early Scientific Approaches to Psychological Science

(Physiology & Psychophysics, Voluntarism & Structuralism, Phenomenology, Evolution and Individual Differences/IQ, Functionalism & Applied Psychology)

Modern Approaches to Psychological Science

(Behaviorism, Gestalt, Early Abnormal Psychology, Psychoanalysis, Humanism, Psychobiology, Cognition)

5 pieces of evidence from the history of psychology that

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support of your argument

Some Key Figures and Ideas

What is the relationship between the human mind and the physical body?

Transmigration of the Soul: soul trapped in body
Zeno: body is an illusion because change is an illusion Democritus: single physical substance (atom), reductionism Anaxagoras: vitalism
Plato: early dualist, lasting effect
St. Augustine: religious dualism
Galileo: primary vs secondary qualities
Descartes: interaction dualism
Berkeley: subjective idealism
Bain, Leibnitz: psychophysical parallelism
Helmholtz: materialism
Gall: phrenology
Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Broca and Wernicke: language location in the brain
Wundt & Titchener
Behaviorism & NeoBehaviorism views
Modern psychobiologist views
Cognitive science and Artificial Intelligence views

To what extent are human attributes physically inherited (nature) OR determined by experience (nurture)?

Transmigration of the Soul: soul trapped in body
Plato: early predetermined view
Protogoras: human perception varies based on culture
Aristotle: law of association (inspires later behaviorism and learning models) Kant’ innate categories of the mind

The Spencer-Bain Principle: probability to do something is based on pain/pleasure result The history of intelligence testing and eugenics: Galton and Goddard, The Bell Curve Burt and Bouchard: twin studies
The Clarks Doll Study

Behaviorism and NeoBehaviorism views Evolutionary Psychology views Chomsky’s view of language

To what extent is human behavior guided by arational emotions or rational cognitions?

Pythagoras: everything is really numbers Plato’s Theory of the Forms
Aristotle: the golden mean
Descartes: I think therefore I am Hobbes: hedonism

Comte: positivism
Early Romanticism: Rousseau, Goethe
Existentialism: Nietzsche
Husserl & Heidegger: phenomenology
Vaihinger’s as if
Gestalt psychologists: the whole
Breuer and Anna O: cathartic release
Freud’s unconscious, 3 parts of conflicted mind, and the guiding principles of each Jung’s collective unconscious: the shadow, the drive to be whole
Modern Humanism and Existentialism
Artificial Intelligence views

Are humans qualitatively (different in kind) or quantitatively (different in degree) related to other animals?

Anthropomorphism
Aristotle’s hierarchy of souls
Religious views of human uniqueness
Descartes: dissected animals to study humans, “animal spirits” Darwin’s Theory of Evolution
Bell-Magendie Law
Doctrine of Specific Nerve Energies
Flourens: ablation
Helmholtz: Materialism
Fritsch and Hitzig
Morgan’s Canon
Thorndike
Behaviorists: Pavlov, Watson, Skinner, Tolman
Modern Humanism/existentialism views

Artificial Intelligence views

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