Nicohwilliam ( deadline by 1pm central time on 4/14/2022)

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Please see attachments

Assignment: At least 250 words, APA format; please be sure to cite relevant sources

Pages 152 (see attachment) of your text shows a Table of Tests used by various types of counselors. However, state regulations vary on what their license authorizes a counselor license holder to do. Research your state regulations for the license you are seeking and list what, if any, instruments you would be allowed to administer & interpret in your state.   BE SPECIFIC about what your specific role can be with assessments in your intended setting. Some you might administer but not interpret, for example.

See the attachment for the regulations for the State of Texas. As a Mental Health Counselor, It doesn’t list what can be allowed however, it states what test are prohibited. This can be included in the write up. Also, include that the Beck Depression/anxiety is a assessment that is allowed.

The Table of Tests shows that counselors use the Beck Depression Inventory.   This test is posted in this week’s coursework folder.   Examine the test and then research it’s reliability and validity.  Is this a test that is reliable and valid for use with diverse clients?  Why or why not?  How would you advocate for culturally fair tests for clients in your future practice of Mental Health Counselor?

See the following attachments for this part of the assignment:

Beck description

Beck description p2

Beck depression inventory

Website for Texas ethics and regulations for professional counselors:

I attached the regulations from this handbook

Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors
Title 22, Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 681


Subchapter C. Code of Ethics.

§681.41. General Ethical Requirements.

(a) A licensee shall not make any false,
misleading, deceptive, fraudulent or exaggerated claim or
statement about the licensee’s services, including, but not
limited to:

(1) the effectiveness of services;

(2) the licensee’s qualifications,
capabilities, background, training, experience, education,
professional affiliations, fees, products, or publications; or

(3) the practice or field of counseling.

(b) A licensee shall not make any false,
misleading, deceptive, fraudulent or exaggerated claim or
statement about the services of a mental health services
organization or agency, including, but not limited to, the
effectiveness of services, qualifications, or products.

(c) A licensee shall discourage a client from
holding exaggerated or false ideas about the licensee’s
professional services, including, but not limited to, the
effectiveness of the services, practice, qualifications,
associations, or activities. If a licensee learns of
exaggerated or false ideas held by a client or other person,
the licensee shall take immediate and reasonable action to
correct the ideas held.

(d) A licensee shall make reasonable efforts to
prevent others whom the licensee does not control, from
making misrepresentations; exaggerated or false claims; or
false, deceptive, or fraudulent statements about the
licensee’s practice, services, qualifications, associations, or
activities. If a licensee learns of a misrepresentation;
exaggerated or false claim; or false, deceptive, or
fraudulent statement made by another, the licensee shall
take immediate and reasonable action to correct the

(e) A licensee shall inform an individual in
writing before services are provided of the following:

(1) fees and arrangements for payment;

(2) counseling purposes, goals, and

(3) any restrictions placed on the license
by the board;

(4) the limits on confidentiality;

(5) any intent of the licensee to use
another individual to provide counseling treatment
intervention to the client; and

(6) supervision of the licensee by another
licensed health care professional including the name and
qualifications of the supervisor.

(f) A licensee shall inform the client in writing of
any changes to the items in subsection (e) of this section
prior to initiating the change.

(g) A licensee shall provide counseling treatment
intervention only in the context of a professional
relationship. Interactive long distance counseling delivery,
where the client resides in one location and the counselor
in another may be used as part of the therapeutic
counseling process. Counselors engaging in interactive
long distance counseling must adhere to each provision of
this chapter.

(h) A licensee shall not intentionally or
knowingly offer to pay or agree to accept any
remuneration directly or indirectly, overtly or covertly, in
cash or in kind, to or from any person, firm, association of
persons, partnership, corporation, or entity for securing or
soliciting clients or patronage for or from any health care

(1) In accordance with the provisions of
the Act, §503.401(4), a licensee is subject to disciplinary
action if the licensee directly or indirectly offers to pay or
agrees to accept remuneration to or from any person for
securing or soliciting a client or patronage.

(2) A licensee employed or under
contract with a chemical dependency facility or a mental
health facility shall comply with the requirements in the
Texas Health and Safety Code, §164.006, relating to
soliciting and contracting with certain referral sources.
Compliance with the Treatment Facilities Marketing
Practices Act, Texas Health and Safety Code, Chapter 164,
shall not be considered as a violation of state law relating
to illegal remuneration.

(i) A licensee shall not engage in activities for the
licensee’s personal gain at the expense of a client.

(j) A licensee shall not promote the licensee’s
personal or business activities to a client unless the
licensee informs the client of the licensee’s personal or
business interest in the activity.

Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors
Title 22, Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 681


(k) A licensee shall set and maintain professional
boundaries. Dual relationships with clients are prohibited.
A dual relationship is considered any non-counseling
activity initiated by either the licensee or client for the
purpose of establishing a non-therapeutic relationship.

(1) The licensee shall not provide counseling
services to previous or current:
(A) family members;
(B) personal friends;
(C) educational associates; or
(D) business associates.

(2) The licensee shall not give or accept a gift
from a client or a relative of a client valued at more than
fifty dollars, or borrow or lend money or items of value to
clients or relatives of clients or accept payment in the form
of goods or services rendered by a client or relative of a

(3) The licensee shall not enter into a non-
professional relationship with a client, client’s family
member or any person having a personal or professional
relationship with a client, if such a relationship could be
detrimental to the client.

(l) The licensee shall not knowingly offer or
provide counseling treatment intervention to an individual
concurrently receiving counseling treatment intervention
from another mental health services provider except with
that provider’s knowledge. If a licensee learns of such
concurrent therapy, the licensee shall take immediate and
reasonable action to inform the other mental health
services provider.

(m) A licensee may take reasonable action to
inform medical or law enforcement personnel if the
professional determines that there is a probability of
imminent physical injury by the client to the client or
others or there is a probability of immediate mental or
emotional injury to the client.

(n) In individual and group counseling settings,
the licensee shall take reasonable precautions to protect
individuals from physical or emotional harm resulting
from interaction within a group or from individual

(o) For each client, a licensee shall keep accurate
records of the dates of counseling treatment intervention,
types of counseling treatment intervention, progress or
case notes, intake assessment, treatment plan, and billing

(p) Records held by a licensee shall be kept for
seven years for adult clients and seven years beyond the

age of 18 for minor clients.

(q) Records created by licensees during the scope
of their employment by educational institutions; by
federal, state, or local governmental agencies; or their
political subdivisions or programs are not required to
comply with subsections (o) and (p) of this section.

(r) A licensee shall bill clients or third parties for
only those services actually rendered or as agreed to by
mutual understanding at the beginning of services or as
later modified by mutual written agreement.

(1) Relationships between a licensee and
any other person used by the licensee to provide services
to a client shall be so reflected on billing documents.

(2) On the written request of a client, a
client’s guardian, or a client’s parent (sole managing, joint
managing or possessory conservator) if the client is a
minor, a licensee shall provide, in plain language, a written
explanation of the types of treatment and charges for
counseling treatment intervention previously made on a
bill or statement for the client. This requirement applies
even if the charges are to be paid by a third party.

(3) A licensee may not knowingly or
flagrantly overcharge a client.

(4) A licensee may not submit to a client
or a third payor a bill for counseling treatment intervention
that the licensee knows was not provided or knows was
improper, unreasonable, or medically or clinically
unnecessary, with the exception of an unkept appointment.

(s) A licensee shall terminate a professional
counseling relationship when it is reasonably clear that the
client is not benefiting from the relationship. When
professional counseling is still indicated, the licensee shall
take reasonable steps to facilitate the transfer to an
appropriate referral or source.

(t) A licensee shall not evaluate any individual’s
mental, emotional, or behavioral condition unless the
licensee has personally interviewed the individual or the
licensee discloses with the evaluation that the licensee has
not personally interviewed the individual.

(u) A licensee may not persistently over treat a

(v) A licensee shall not aid and abet the
unlicensed practice of professional counseling by a person
required to be licensed under the Act.

Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors
Title 22, Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 681


(w) A licensee or an applicant for licensure shall
not participate in any way in the falsification of
applications for licensure.

(x) A licensee shall comply with the requirements
of Texas Health and Safety Code, Chapter 611, concerning
the release of mental health records and confidential

(y) A licensee shall establish a plan for the
custody and control of the licensee’s client mental health
records in the event of the licensee’s death or incapacity,
or the termination of the licensee’ s counseling practice. A
licensee shall inform each client of the plan.

§681.42. Sexual Misconduct.

(a) For the purpose of this section the following
terms shall have the following meanings.

(1) Mental health services means
assessment, diagnosis, treatment, or counseling in a
professional relationship to assist an individual or group

(A) alleviating mental or
emotional illness, symptoms, conditions, or disorders,
including alcohol or drug addiction;

(B) understanding conscious or
subconscious motivations;

(C) resolving emotional,
attitudinal, or relationship conflicts; or

(D) modifying feelings,
attitudes, or behaviors that interfere with effective
emotional, social, or intellectual functioning.

(2) Mental health services provider
means a licensee or any other licensed or unlicensed
individual who performs or purports to perform
professional counseling or mental health services,
including a licensed social worker, a chemical dependency
counselor, a licensed marriage and family therapist, a
physician, a psychologist, or a member of the clergy.

(3) Sexual contact means:

(A) deviate sexual intercourse
as defined by the Texas Penal Code, §21.01;

(B) sexual contact as defined by
the Texas Penal Code, §21.01;

(C) sexual intercourse as
defined by the Texas Penal Code, §21.01; or

(D) requests by a licensee for
conduct described by subparagraph (A), (B), or (C) of this

(4) Sexual exploitation means a pattern,
practice, or scheme of conduct, which may include sexual
contact, that can reasonably be construed as being for the
purposes of sexual arousal or gratification or sexual abuse
of any person. The term does not include obtaining
information about a client’s sexual history within standard
accepted practice while treating a sexual or marital

(5) Therapeutic deception means a
representation by a licensee that sexual contact with, or
sexual exploitation by, the licensee is consistent with, or a
part of, a client’s or former client’s counseling.

(b) A licensee shall not engage in sexual contact
with a person who is:

(1) a client or former client;

(2) an LPC intern supervised by the
licensee; or

(3) a student at an educational institution
at which the licensee provides professional or educational

(c) A licensee shall not engage in sexual
exploitation of a person who is:

(1) a client or former client;

(2) an LPC intern supervised by the
licensee; or

(3) a student at an educational institution
at which the licensee provides professional or educational

(d) A licensee shall not practice therapeutic
deception of a person who is a client or former client.

(e) It is not a defense under subsections (b) – (d)
of this section if the sexual contact, sexual exploitation, or
therapeutic deception with the person occurred:
(1) with the consent of the client;
(2) outside the professional counseling
sessions of the client; or

Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors
Title 22, Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 681


(3) off the premises regularly used by the
licensee for the professional counseling sessions
of the client.
(f) The following may constitute sexual

exploitation if done for the purpose of sexual arousal or
gratification or sexual abuse of any person:

(1) sexual harassment, sexual
solicitation, physical advances, or verbal or nonverbal
conduct that is sexual in nature, and:
(A) is offensive or creates a hostile
environment, and the licensee knows or is told this; or
(B) is sufficiently severe or intense to
be abusive to a reasonable person in the context;

(2) any behavior, gestures, or expressions
which may reasonably be interpreted as inappropriately
seductive or sexual;
(3) inappropriate sexual comments about
or to a person, including making sexual comments about a
person’s body;
(4) making sexually demeaning
comments about an individual’s sexual orientation;

(5) making comments about potential
sexual performance except when the comment is pertinent
to the issue of sexual function or dysfunction in

(6) requesting details of sexual history
or sexual likes and dislikes when not necessary for
counseling of the individual;
(7) initiating conversation regarding the
sexual problems, preferences, or fantasies of the licensee;
(8) kissing or fondling;
(9) making a request to date;
(10) any other deliberate or repeated
comments, gestures, or physical acts not constituting
sexual intimacies but of a sexual nature;
(11) any bodily exposure of genitals,
anus or breasts;
(12) encouraging another to masturbate
in the presence of the licensee; or
(13) masturbation by the licensee when
another is present.

(g) Examples of sexual contact are those activities

and behaviors described in the Texas Penal Code, §21.01.

(h) A licensee shall report sexual misconduct as

(1) If a licensee has reasonable cause to
suspect that a client has been the victim of sexual
exploitation, sexual contact, or therapeutic deception by
another licensee or a mental health services provider, or if
a client alleges sexual exploitation, sexual contact, or
therapeutic deception by another licensee or a mental
health services provider, the licensee shall report the
alleged conduct not later than the 30th day after the date

the licensee became aware of the conduct or the allegations
(A) the prosecuting attorney in the
county in which the alleged sexual exploitation, sexual
contact or therapeutic deception occurred; and
(B) the board if the conduct involves a
licensee and any other state licensing agency which
licenses the mental health services provider.
(2) Before making a report under this
subsection, the reporter shall inform the alleged victim of
the reporter’s duty to report and shall determine if the
alleged victim wants to remain anonymous.

(3) A report under this subsection need contain
only the information needed to:
(A) identify the reporter;
(B) identify the alleged victim, unless
the alleged victim has requested anonymity;
(C) express suspicion that sexual
exploitation, sexual contact, or therapeutic deception
occurred; and
(D) provide the name of the alleged

§681.43. Testing.

(a) Prior to or following the administration of any
testing, a licensee shall make known to clients the
purposes and explicit use to be made of any testing done as
a part of a professional counseling relationship.

(b) A licensee shall not appropriate, reproduce, or
modify copyrighted tests or parts thereof without the
acknowledgment and permission of the copyright owner.

(c) A licensee shall not administer any test
without the appropriate training and experience to
administer and interpret the test.

(d) A licensee must observe the necessary
precautions to maintain the security of any test
administered by the license or under the licensee’s

(e) In accordance with the Act, the use of
standardized projective techniques is prohibited. This
prohibition includes, but is not limited to, the Rorschach
Inkblot Test, the Holtzman Inkblot Test, the Thematic
Apperception Test, the Children’s Apperception Test, and
the Senior Apperception Test.

§681.44. Drug and Alcohol Use.

A licensee shall not:

(1) use alcohol or drugs in a manner


Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors
Title 22, Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 681


which adversely affects the licensee’s ability to provide
counseling treatment intervention services;

(2) use illegal drugs of any kind; or

(3) promote, encourage, or concur in the
illegal use or possession of alcohol or drugs.

§681.45. Confidentiality and Required Reporting.

(a) Communication between a licensee and client
and the client’s records, however created or stored, are
confidential under the provisions of the Texas Health and
Safety Code, Chapter 611 and other state or federal
statutes or rules where such statutes or rules apply to a
licensee’s practice.

(b) A licensee shall not disclose any
communication, record, or identity of a client except as
provided in Texas Health and Safety Code, Chapter 611 or
other state or federal statutes or rules.

(c) A licensee shall comply with Texas Health
and Safety Code, Chapter 611, concerning access to
mental health records and confidential information.

(d) A licensee shall report information if required
by any of the following statutes:

(1) Texas Family Code, Chapter 2614,
concerning abuse or neglect of minors;

(2) Texas Human Resources Code,
Chapter 48, concerning abuse, neglect, or exploitation of
elderly or disabled persons;

(3) Texas Health and Safety Code,
Chapter 161, Subchapter K, §161.131 et seq., concerning
abuse, neglect, and illegal, unprofessional, or unethical
conduct in an in-patient mental health facility, a chemical
dependency treatment facility or a hospital providing
comprehensive medical rehabilitation services; and

(4) Texas Civil Practice and Remedies
Code, §81.006, concerning sexual exploitation by a mental
health services provider.

(5) A licensee shall comply with
Occupations Code, Chapter 109, relating to the release and
exchange of information concerning the treatment of a sex

§681.46. Licensees and the Board.

(a) Licensees are bound by the provisions of the
Act and this chapter.

(b) A licensee shall have the responsibility of
reporting alleged violations of the Act or this chapter to the
board’s executive director.

(c) A licensee shall keep his or her board file
updated by notifying the board in writing of changes of
name, highest academic degree granted, address, telephone
number, and employment.

(d) A licensee shall cooperate with the board by
furnishing documents or information and by responding to
a request for information from or a subpoena issued by the
board or its authorized representative.

(e) A licensee shall comply with any order issued
by the board relating to the licensee.

(f) A licensee shall not interfere with a board
investigation by the willful misrepresentation of facts to
the board or its authorized representative or by the use of
threats or harassment against any person.

(g) A licensee shall not file a complaint with the
board in bad faith.

§681.47. Assumed Names.

(a) An individual practice by a licensee may be
established as a corporation, a limited liability partnership,
a limited liability company, or other allowable business
entity in accordance with state or federal law.

(b) An assumed or trade name used by a licensee
must not be false, deceptive, or misleading, as those terms
are described in §681.49(b) of this title (relating to
Advertising and Announcements.)

§681.48. Consumer Information.

(a) A licensee shall inform each client of the
name, address, and telephone number of the board for the
purpose of reporting violations of the Act or this chapter:

(1) on each application or written
contract for services;

(2) on a sign prominently displayed in
the primary place of business; or

Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors
Title 22, Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 681


(3) on a bill for counseling treatment
intervention provided to a client or third party.

(b) A licensee shall display the license certificate
and current renewal card issued by the board in a
prominent place in the primary location of practice.

(c) A licensee shall not display a license
certificate or current renewal card issued by the board
which has been reproduced or is expired, suspended, or

(d) A licensee shall not make any alteration on a
license certificate or renewal card issued by the board.

§681.49. Advertising and Announcements.

(a) Information used by a licensee in any
advertisement or announcement shall not contain
information which is false, inaccurate, misleading,
incomplete, out of context, deceptive or not readily
verifiable. Advertising includes, but is not limited to, any
announcement of services, letterhead, business cards,
commercial products, and billing statements.

(b) False, misleading, or deceptive advertising or
advertising that is not readily subject to verification
includes advertising that:
(1) makes any material misrepresentation
of fact or omits a fact necessary to make the statement as a
whole not materially misleading;

(2) makes any representation likely to
create an unjustified expectation about the results of a
health care service or procedure;

(3) compares a health care professional’s
services with another health care professional’s services
unless the comparison can be factually substantiated;

(4) contains a testimonial that includes
false, deceptive, or misleading statements, or fails to
include disclaimers or warnings as to the credentials of the
person making the testimonial;

(5) causes confusion or
misunderstanding as to the credentials, education, or
licensure of a health care professional;

(6) advertises or represents that health
care insurance deductibles or co-payments may be waived
or are not applicable to health care services to be provided
if the deductibles or co-payments are required;

(7) advertises or represents that the

benefits of a health benefit plan will be accepted as full
payment when deductibles or co-payments are required;

(8) makes a representation that is
designed to take advantage of the fears or emotions of a
particularly susceptible type of patient; or

(9) advertises or represents in the use of
a professional name a title or professional identification
that is expressly or commonly reserved to or used by
another profession or professional.

(c) A licensee who retains or hires others to
advertise or promote the licensee’s practice remains
responsible for the statements and representations made.

(d) The highest academic degree earned from an
accredited college or university in counseling or a
counseling-related field may be used when advertising or
announcing counseling treatment intervention to the public
or in counseling-related professional representations. A
degree received at a foreign university may be used if the
degree could be accepted as a transfer degree by accredited
universities as reported by the American Association of
Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers.
Notwithstanding the foregoing, a licensee may advertise or
announce his or her other degrees from accredited colleges
or universities if the subject of the degree is specified.

(e) The board imposes no restrictions on
advertising by a licensee with regard to the use of any
medium, the licensee’s personal appearance, or the use of
his or her personal voice, the size or duration of an
advertisement by a licensee, or the use of a trade name.

(f) All advertisements or announcements of
counseling treatment intervention including telephone
directory listings by a person licensed by the board may
clearly state the licensee’s licensure status by the use of a
title such as “Licensed Counselor”, or “Licensed
Professional Counselor”, or “L.P.C.”, or a statement such
as “licensed by the Texas State Board of Examiners of
Professional Counselors.”

(g) Counselors holding a temporary license shall
indicate intern status on all advertisements, billing, and
announcements of counseling treatment by the use of the
term “LPC-Intern.”

(h) A licensee is required to hold the art therapy
specialty designation in order to use the title “art therapist”
or the initials “A.T.” A licensee who does not hold the
designation may engage in the practice of counseling by
using art therapy as a counseling method but may not use
the title or initials.

Texas State Board of Examiners of Professional Counselors
Title 22, Texas Administrative Code, Chapter 681


§681.50. Research and Publications.

(a) In research with a human subject, a licensee
shall take reasonable precautions to ensure that the subject
does not suffer emotional or physical harm.

(b) A licensee shall ensure the full protection of a
client’s identity when using data obtained from a
professional counseling relationship for the purposes of
education or research.

(c) When conducting or reporting research, a
licensee must give recognition to previous work on the
topic as well as observe all copyright laws.

(d) A licensee must give due credit through joint
authorship, acknowledgment, footnote statements, or other
appropriate means to those persons who have contributed
significantly to the licensee’s research or publication.

§681.51. Finding of Non-Fitness for Licensure
Subsequent to Issuance of License. The board may take
disciplinary action based upon information received after
issuance of a license, if such information would have been
the basis for denial of licensure had it been received prior
to the issuance of the license.

§681.52. LPC Interns.

(a) An LPC intern may not practice within his or
her own private independent practice of professional
counseling. Months or hours of independent practice will
not count as part of the intern’ s supervised experience;
however, the intern may be employed in his or her
supervisor’s private practice of professional counseling and
the months or hours may be counted.

(b) An LPC intern may be employed on a salary
basis or be a consultant or volunteer.

(c) No payment for services will be made directly
by a client to the intern.

(d) Client records are not the property of the
counseling intern.

(e) All billing documents for services provided by
LPC interns shall reflect that the LPC intern holds a
temporary license and is under supervision.

(f) A supervisor may not be employed by an LPC

(g) The LPC intern may compensate the
supervisor for time spent in supervision if the supervision

is not a part of the supervisor’s responsibilities as a paid
employee of an agency, institution, clinic, or other
business entity.

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eTextbook: Essentials of Testing and Assessment: A Practical Guide for Counselors, Social Workers, and Psychologists, Enhanced

  • descriptionCover Page
  • descriptionTitle Page
  • descriptionCopyright Page
  • descriptionDedicationi
  • descriptionPrefacexv
  • descriptionAcknowledgementsxx
  • keyboard_arrow_rightSection I. Understanding the Assessment Process: H…1
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 1. History of Testing and Assessment4
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionDistinguishing between Testing and Assessment5
      • keyboard_arrow_rightThe History of Assessment
        • descriptionAncient History
        • descriptionPrecursors to Modern-Day Test Development6
        • descriptionThe Emergence of Ability Tests (Testing in the Cog…8
        • descriptionThe Emergence of Personality Tests (Testing in the…13
        • descriptionThe Emergence of Informal Assessment Procedures14
        • descriptionModern-Day Use of Assessment Procedures15
      • descriptionQuestions to Consider When Assessing Individuals
      • descriptionSummary18
      • descriptionChapter Review19
      • descriptionReferences20
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 2. Ethical, Legal, and Professional Issues…22
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • keyboard_arrow_rightEthical Issues in Assessment
        • descriptionOverview of the Assessment Sections of the ACA and…23
        • descriptionStandards for Responsible Testing Practices27
        • descriptionMaking Ethical Decisions28
      • keyboard_arrow_rightLegal Issues in Assessment29
        • descriptionThe Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA…
        • descriptionThe Health Insurance Portability and Accountabilit…30
        • descriptionPrivileged Communication
        • descriptionThe Freedom of Information Act
        • descriptionCivil Rights Acts (1964 and Amendments)31
        • descriptionAmericans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (PL 101-336)32
        • descriptionIndividuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
        • descriptionSection 504 of the Rehabilitation Act33
        • descriptionCarl Perkins Career and Technical Education Improv…
      • keyboard_arrow_rightProfessional Issues
        • descriptionProfessional Associations34
        • descriptionAccreditation Standards of Professional Associatio…
        • descriptionForensic Evaluations35
        • descriptionAssessment as a Holistic Process36
        • descriptionCross-Cultural Issues in Assessment37
        • descriptionEmbracing Testing and Assessment Procedures38
      • descriptionSummary39
      • descriptionChapter Review40
      • descriptionReferences41
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 3. Diagnosis in the Assessment Process 44
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionThe Importance of Diagnosis45
      • descriptionThe Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM): A Bri…46
      • keyboard_arrow_rightThe DSM-5
        • descriptionSingle-Axis vs. Multiaxial Diagnosis47
        • descriptionMaking and Reporting Diagnosis48
        • descriptionSpecific Diagnostic Categories50
        • descriptionOther Medical Considerations53
        • descriptionPsychosocial and Environmental Considerations54
        • descriptionCultural Considerations
        • descriptionFinal Thoughts on DSM-5 in the Assessment Process55
      • descriptionSummary
      • descriptionChapter Review57
      • descriptionAnswers to Exercise
      • descriptionReferences58
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 4. The Assessment Report Process: Intervie…60
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionPurpose of the Assessment Report
      • descriptionGathering Information for the Report: Garbage in, …61
      • keyboard_arrow_rightStructured, Unstructured, and Semi-Structured Inte…62
        • descriptionComputer-Driven Assessment64
      • descriptionChoosing an Appropriate Assessment Instrument65
      • keyboard_arrow_rightWriting the Report
        • descriptionDemographic Information66
        • descriptionPresenting Problem or Reason for Referral
        • descriptionFamily Background67
        • descriptionSignificant Medical/Counseling History
        • descriptionSubstance Use and Abuse68
        • descriptionEducational and Vocational History
        • descriptionOther Pertinent Information
        • descriptionMental Status69
        • descriptionAssessment Results73
        • descriptionDiagnosis74
        • descriptionSummary and Conclusions75
        • descriptionRecommendations
      • descriptionSummarizing the Writing of an Assessment Report76
      • descriptionSummary78
      • descriptionChapter Review
      • descriptionReferences79
  • keyboard_arrow_rightSection II. Test Worthiness and Test Statistics82
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 5. Test Worthiness: Validity, Reliability,…83
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionCorrelation Coefficient85
      • descriptionCoefficient of Determination (Shared Variance)87
      • keyboard_arrow_rightValidity
        • descriptionContent Validity88
        • descriptionCriterion-Related Validity90
        • descriptionConstruct Validity92
        • descriptionVisual Representation of Types of Validity94
      • keyboard_arrow_rightReliability95
        • descriptionTest-Retest Reliability96
        • descriptionAlternate, Parallel, or Equivalent Forms Reliabili…
        • descriptionInternal Consistency97
        • descriptionVisual Representation of Types of Reliability98
        • descriptionItem Response Theory: Another Way of Looking at Re…99
      • descriptionCross-Cultural Fairness100
      • keyboard_arrow_rightPracticality
        • descriptionTime
        • descriptionCost
        • descriptionFormat103
        • descriptionReadability
        • descriptionEase of Administration, Scoring, and Interpretatio…
      • keyboard_arrow_rightSelecting and Administering a Good Test
        • descriptionStep 1: Determine the Goals of Your Client104
        • descriptionStep 2: Choose Instrument Types to Reach Client Go…
        • descriptionStep 3: Access Information about Possible Instrume…105
        • descriptionStep 4: Examine Validity, Reliability, Cross-Cultu…106
        • descriptionStep 5: Choose an Instrument Wisely
      • descriptionSummary107
      • descriptionChapter Review
      • descriptionReferences108
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 6. Statistical Concepts: Making Meaning ou…111
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionRaw Scores112
      • descriptionFrequency Distributions113
      • descriptionHistograms and Frequency Polygons114
      • descriptionCumulative Distributions116
      • keyboard_arrow_rightNormal Curves and Skewed Curves
        • descriptionThe Normal Curve117
        • descriptionSkewed Curves118
      • keyboard_arrow_rightMeasures of Central Tendency
        • descriptionMean
        • descriptionMedian119
        • descriptionMode
      • keyboard_arrow_rightMeasures of Variability
        • descriptionRange120
        • descriptionInterquartile Range121
        • descriptionStandard Deviation123
      • descriptionRemembering the Person125
      • descriptionSummary126
      • descriptionChapter Review
      • descriptionReferences127
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 7. Statistical Concepts: Creating New Scor…128
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionNorm Referencing versus Criterion Referencing129
      • keyboard_arrow_rightNormative Comparisons and Derived Scores130
        • descriptionPercentiles
        • descriptionStandard Scores131
        • descriptionDevelopmental Norms140
      • descriptionPutting It All Together141
      • descriptionStandard Error of Measurement142
      • descriptionStandard Error of Estimate144
      • keyboard_arrow_rightScales of Measurement
        • descriptionNominal Scale146
        • descriptionOrdinal Scale
        • descriptionInterval Scale
        • descriptionRatio Scale147
      • descriptionSummary148
      • descriptionChapter Review 149
      • descriptionReferences150
  • keyboard_arrow_downSection III. Commonly Used Assessment Techniques152
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 8. Assessment of Educational Ability: Surv…158
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionDefining Assessment of Educational Ability159
      • keyboard_arrow_rightSurvey Battery Achievement Testing160
        • descriptionNational Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)161
        • descriptionStanford Achievement Test163
        • descriptionIowa Assessments164
        • descriptionMetropolitan Achievement Test
      • keyboard_arrow_rightDiagnostic Testing166
        • descriptionThe Wide Range Achievement Test 5 (WRAT5)167
        • descriptionWechsler Individual Achievement Test—Third Edition…
        • descriptionPeabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Fourth Edition (P…
        • descriptionWoodcock-Johnson® IV
        • descriptionKeyMath3™ Diagnostic Assessment171
      • keyboard_arrow_rightReadiness Testing
        • descriptionSchool Readiness Test, Fourth Edition172
        • descriptionKindergarten Readiness Test (KRT)173
        • descriptionMetropolitan Readiness Test (MRT6)
        • descriptionGesell Developmental Observation—Revised174
      • keyboard_arrow_rightCognitive Ability Tests
        • descriptionOtis-Lennon School Ability Test, Eighth Edition (O…175
        • descriptionThe Cognitive Ability Test (CogAT)178
        • descriptionCollege and Graduate School Admission Exams179
      • descriptionThe Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Education…183
      • descriptionFinal Thoughts About the Assessment of Educational…184
      • descriptionSummary185
      • descriptionChapter Review186
      • descriptionReferences187
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 9. Intellectual and Cognitive Functioning:…191
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionA Brief History of Intelligence Testing
      • descriptionDefining Intelligence Testing192
      • keyboard_arrow_rightModels of Intelligence
        • descriptionSpearman’s Two-Factor Approach193
        • descriptionThurstone’s Multifactor Approach
        • descriptionVernon’s Hierarchical Model of Intelligence
        • descriptionGuilford’s Multifactor/MultiDimensional Model
        • descriptionCattell’s Fluid and Crystal Intelligence194
        • descriptionPiaget’s Cognitive Development Theory
        • descriptionGardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences197
        • descriptionSternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Successful Intelli…198
        • descriptionCattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Integrated Model of Int…
        • descriptionTheories of Intelligence Summarized
      • keyboard_arrow_rightIntelligence Testing200
        • descriptionStanford-Binet, Fifth Edition201
        • descriptionWechsler Scales204
        • descriptionKaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Ed…
        • descriptionNonverbal Intelligence Tests209
      • keyboard_arrow_rightNeuropsychological Assessment
        • descriptionA Brief History of Neuropsychological Assessment
        • descriptionDefining Neuropsychological Assessment211
        • descriptionMethods of Neuropsychological Assessment212
      • descriptionThe Role of Helpers in the Assessment of Intellect…215
      • descriptionFinal Thoughts on the Assessment of Intellectual a…
      • descriptionSummary216
      • descriptionChapter Review218
      • descriptionReferences220
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 10. Career and Occupational Assessment: In…222
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionDefining Career and Occupational Assessment
      • keyboard_arrow_rightInterest Inventories223
        • descriptionStrong Interest Inventory® 224
        • descriptionSelf-Directed Search
        • descriptionCOPSystem229
        • descriptionO*NET and Career Exploration Tools231
        • descriptionOther Common Interest Inventories
      • keyboard_arrow_rightMultiple Aptitude Testing
        • descriptionFactor Analysis and Multiple Aptitude Testing234
        • descriptionArmed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and Car…235
        • descriptionDifferential Aptitude Tests238
      • keyboard_arrow_rightSpecial Aptitude Testing
        • descriptionClerical Aptitude Tests239
        • descriptionMechanical Aptitude Tests240
        • descriptionArtistic Aptitude Tests241
        • descriptionMusical Aptitude Tests
      • descriptionThe Role of Helpers in Occupational and Career Ass…242
      • descriptionFinal Thoughts Concerning Occupational and Career …
      • descriptionSummary243
      • descriptionChapter Review
      • descriptionReferences245
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 11. Clinical Assessment: Objective and Pro…248
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionDefining Clinical Assessment
      • keyboard_arrow_rightObjective Personality Testing
        • descriptionCommon Objective Personality Tests249
      • keyboard_arrow_rightProjective Testing267
        • descriptionCommon Projective Tests268
      • descriptionThe Role of Helpers in Clinical Assessment
      • descriptionFinal Thoughts on Clinical Assessment275
      • descriptionSummary276
      • descriptionChapter Review
      • descriptionReferences278
    • keyboard_arrow_rightChapter 12. Informal Assessment: Observation, Rati…282
      • descriptionLearning Objectives
      • descriptionDefining Informal Assessment
      • keyboard_arrow_rightTypes of Informal Assessment283
        • descriptionObservation284
        • descriptionRating Scales285
        • descriptionClassification Methods288
        • descriptionEnvironmental Assessment291
        • descriptionRecords and Personal Documents293
        • descriptionPerformance-Based Assessment298
      • keyboard_arrow_rightTest Worthiness of Informal Assessment299
        • descriptionValidity
        • descriptionReliability300
        • descriptionCross-Cultural Fairness302
        • descriptionPracticality
      • descriptionThe Role of Helpers in the Use of Informal Assessm…
      • descriptionFinal Thoughts on Informal Assessment303
      • descriptionSummary304
      • descriptionChapter Review
      • descriptionReferences305
  • descriptionAppendix A. Websites of Codes of Ethics of Select …307
  • descriptionAppendix B. Assessment Sections of ACA’s and APA’s…309
  • descriptionAppendix C. Code of Fair Testing Practices in Educ…315
  • descriptionAppendix D. Sample Assessment Report 322
  • descriptionAppendix E. Supplemental Statistical Equations328
  • descriptionAppendix F. Converting Percentiles from z-Scores330

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