Now in its sixth edition, Persuasion: Social Influence and Compliance Gaining continues to boast an accessible voice and vibrant aesthetic that appeals to undergraduate students of communication, psychology, advertising, and marketing. In addition to presenting established theories and models, this text encourages students to develop and apply general conclusions about persuasion in real-world settings. Along the way, students are introduced to the practice of social influence in an array of contexts (e.g., advertising, marketing, politics, interpersonal relationships, social media, groups) and across a variety of topics (e.g., credibility, personality, deception, motivational appeals, visual persuasion). The new edition features an expanded treatment of digital and social media, up-to-date research on theory and practice, and enhanced discussions of topics such as political campaigning, emotional marketing, olfactory influence, and ethics. Instructors can also use the book’s downloadable test bank, instructor’s manual, and PowerPoint slides in preparing course material.
Robert H. Gass is Professor Emeritus of Communication Studies at California State University, Fullerton, USA.
John S. Seiter is Professor in the Department of Languages, Philosophy, and Communication Studies at Utah State University, USA.
Persuasion Social Influence and Compliance Gaining Sixth Edition
Robert H. Gass John S. Seiter
Sixth edition published 2018
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First edition published by Pearson Education, Inc. 2002
Fifth edition published by Routledge 2016
Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data
Names: Gass, Robert H., author. | Seiter, John S., author.
Title: Persuasion : social influence, and compliance gaining /
Robert H. Gass, John S. Seiter.
Description: Sixth edition. | New York, NY : Routledge, 2018.
Identifiers: LCCN 2017042512| ISBN 9781138630598 (hardback) |
ISBN 9781138630611 (pbk.)
Subjects: LCSH: Persuasion (Psychology) | Influence (Psychology) |
Classification: LCC BF637.P4 G34 2018 | DDC 153.8/52—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017042512
ISBN: 978-0-8153-5821-3 (hbk)
ISBN: 978-1-138-63061-1 (pbk)
ISBN: 978-1-315-20930-2 (ebk)
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Visit the eResource: www.routledge.com/9781138630611
To Banjo and Julep, my two English Setters, who keep me company when I’m writing at home.
To Miss Gordon, my second-grade teacher, for knowing that self-concept is the proper starting place.
To our families—Susan, Jordan, Graham, Debora, Dean, Andy, and Christian—for doing without us when we were writing and for putting up with us when we weren’t.
Robert Gass and John Seiter
Preface for the Sixth Edition Acknowledgments
Why Study Persuasion?
Aims and Goals
Persuasion Is Not a Dirty Word
Persuasion Is Our Friend
The Pervasiveness of Persuasion: You Can Run but You Can’t Hide
Tipping Points, Buzz Marketing, and Word of Mouth
Nudges: Sometimes Less Is More
New Persuasion: Digital and Online Influence
eWOM: Digital Buzz
Sponsored Content: The Native Advertisers Are Getting Restless
Opinion Mining and Sentiment Tracking: I Feel You
Gamification: You’ve Got Game
Crowdsourcing and Crowdfunding: Lending a Helping Hand
Persuasive Technology: My Heart Says Yes, but My Watch Says No
Persuasion in the Sciences
Persuasion in the Arts
Other Not-So-Obvious Contexts for Persuasion
Persuasion in Interpersonal Settings
Five Benefits of Studying Persuasion
The Instrumental Function: Be All That You Can Be
The Knowledge and Awareness Function: Inquiring Minds Want to Know
The Defensive Function: Duck and Cover
The Debunking Function: Puh-Shaw
Well-Being and Self-Worth: I Feel Good
Two Criticisms of Persuasion
Does Learning About Persuasion Foster Manipulation?
Are Persuasion Findings Too Inconsistent or Confusing?
Ethical Concerns About the Use of Persuasion
What Constitutes Persuasion?
Pure Versus Borderline Cases of Persuasion
Limiting Criteria for Defining Persuasion
Free Will and Conscious Awareness
Interpersonal Versus Intrapersonal
A Model of the Scope of Persuasion
The Context for Persuasion
A Working Definition of Persuasion
So What Isn’t Persuasion?
Dual Processes of Persuasion
The Elaboration Likelihood Model of Persuasion
The Heuristic Systematic Model of Persuasion
The Unimodel of Persuasion
Attitudes and Consistency
What Is an “Attitude” in 20 Words or Less?
So How Do You Measure the Durn Things?
Explicit Measures: Self-Report Scales
Visually Oriented Scales
Pitfalls in Measuring Attitudes
Implicit Measures: What’s Rattling Around Inside Your Brain?
More Roundabout Ways of Measuring Attitudes
Physiological Measures of Attitude
The Reasoned Action Approach (RAA)
Behavioral Beliefs and Attitudes: Believe It or Not
Normative Beliefs: It’s What the Cool Kids Are Doing
Perceived Behavioral Control: I Got This
The Persistence of Attitudes
Attitudes as Associative Networks: Your Mind Is a Web
Manufacturing Favorable Associations: Jiggling the Web
Brands and Branding: That’s the Life
Who Are You Wearing? Brand Personality
Authenticity: Keeping It Real
Cause-Related Marketing: The Feel-Good Factor
The Inner Peace of Consistency
Methods of Maintaining Consistency
Marketing Strategies: How to Have Your Cake and Eat It Too
Brand Loyalty: Accept No Substitute
Write and Tell Us Why You Love This Book in 24 Words or Less
Capitalizing on Inconsistency
Cognitive Dissonance Theory (CDT)
Cognitive Dissonance and Buyer’s Remorse
Polarization of Alternatives
Cognitive Dissonance, Self-Image, and Culture
Factors That Affect the Magnitude of Dissonance
Dissonance and Persuasion: Putting It All Together
Forbidden Fruit: Psychological Reactance
Counterattitudinal Advocacy: Playing Devil’s Advocate
I’m All In: Increasing Commitment
Commitments Can “Grow Legs”
Celebrity Selling Power: The Answer Is in the Stars
The Match-Up Hypothesis: Why Jonah Hill Should Not Be Revlon’s Spokesperson
Catch a Falling Star
What Is Credibility?
Credibility Is a Receiver-Based Construct
Credibility Is a Multidimensional Construct
Credibility Is a Situational/Contextual Phenomenon
Credibility Is Dynamic
The Factor Analytic Approach to Credibility
Primary Dimensions of Credibility
Secondary Dimensions of Credibility
The Factor Analytic Approach and the Real World
Credibility as a Peripheral Cue
It’s What’s Up Front That Counts
The Sleeper Effect
Credibility and Image Management
Interpersonal Credibility, Impression Management, Facework, and Accounts
Strategies for Enhancing Credibility: Get Your Mojo Working
Communicator Characteristics and Persuasion
Demographic Variables and Persuasion
Age and Persuasion: Pretty Please With Sugar on Top
Gender Differences and Persuasion: The Times, They Aren’t a-Changin’
Ethnicity, Culture, and Persuasion: “Me” and “We” Perspectives
Intelligence and Persuasion: Dumb and Dumber
Psychological and Communication States and Traits
Self-Esteem and Persuasion: Feelin’ Kinda Low
Anxiety and Persuasion: Living in Fear
Preference for Consistency: I Wouldn’t Change a Thing
Self-Monitoring and Persuasion: Periscope Up
Ego Involvement: Not Budging an Inch
Issue Involvement: What’s This Have to Do With Me?
Dogmatism, Authoritarianism, and Social Vigilantism: You Can’t Teach an Old Dog New Tricks
Narcissism: How Do I Love Me? Let Me Count the Ways
Cognitive Complexity and Need for Cognition
Persuasion and Aggression: Sticks and Stones
Analyzing and Adapting to Audiences
Pay Attention to the Situation
Keep Your Audience’s Mind in Mind
Remember the Importance of Audience States and Traits
Don’t Forget About Audience Demographics
Conformity and Influence in Groups
Conformity as Persuasion: In With the Crowd
In the Beginning: Early Research on Conformity Effects
Variables Related to Conformity
Social Proof: Using the Sheep Factor to Persuade Others
Ostracism: Shuns and Guns
Deindividuation, Social Loafing, and Social Facilitation: Getting Lost in the Crowd
What a Riot: An Examination of Deindividuation
Social Loafing: Not Pulling Your Own Weight
Social Facilitation: Would You Rather Be Alone?
How Groups Affect Decision Making: To Risk or Not to Risk