Powerpoint assignment

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Instructions and example attached 

PSYC 320

Behavior Modification Project: PowerPoint Assignment Instructions

Overview

You will present your research via a PowerPoint presentation of your Behavior Modification Project.

Instructions

The 10 slides should clearly and concisely present the experiment in an interesting and creative manner. One slide for a title slide, 8 slides to present the project, and one slide for references. Please see the Behavior Modification Project: PowerPoint Example.

Note: This assignment will be checked for originality via the Turnitin plagiarism tool.

Look Me in the Eye

Susie Sample

Eye Contact

Positive Reinforcement

Summary of Case

This section is similar to the introduction paragraph in your paper. Give a brief overview of the behavior and treatment plan.

Literature Review

Eye contact is cultural (Aronsonet al., 2010).

Eye contact is an essential part of a conversation (Richardson, Dale, & Kirkham, 2007).

Poor eye contact may give wrong impressions such as little respect for the speaker (Amerikaner, 1980).

Eye movements can inform the recipient whose turn it is to talk along with hand gestures and other forms of communicating (Richardson et al.).

Individuals with Autism often fear society and are able to maintain eye contact. Positive Reinforcement was used to modify the behavior deficit (Baker & Edelmann, 2002; Tetreault & Lerman, 2010).

Baseline Phase

Target Behavior Definition: Eye contact for this observation was defined as the ability to look at the other person while speaking and listening in a conversation.

Observation Process: The observer was the person speaking with the subject, for she could observe the focus of the eye.

The behavior was observed and recorded for two weeks.

The observation was unstructured and the subject did not know when she was observed during the conversation.

The observer recorded the duration and frequency of the behavior deficit.

The behavior of eye contact was recorded once a day during a conversation for precisely five minutes.

Dimensions Recorded:

The duration was how long the subject could maintain eye contact with the observer.

The frequency was how many times the subject lost focus and looked somewhere other than at the observer.

Baseline Phase Graph

Days

Figure 1. The Duration of Eye Contact

Duration of Eye Contact in Seconds

Baseline

Duration of Eye Contact in Seconds 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 50 55 34 30 35 44 32 28 28 40 20 34 28 32

Baseline Phase Graph

The Frequency of Eye Contact

Days

Figure 2. The Frequency of Eye Contact

Baseline

Baseline 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 24 22 20 27 18 24 16 18 14 20 17 24 26 21

Treatment for Deficit of Eye Contact

Treatment Method: positive reinforcement.

Facial gratification and verbal praise were used as the positive reinforcers in the treatment phase.

The schedule of positive reinforcement used was continuous reinforcement. This was implemented by the observer responding to each occurrence of eye contact.

Research Design: A-B-A-B reversal design.

The graph shows the initial week of baseline observation, the first week of treatment, the return to baseline, and the second week of treatment to show the completed A-B-A-B reversal design.

Results of the
Eye Contact Experiment

Positive Reinforcement appeared to be effective in increasing the duration of the participant’s eye contact.

During the second baseline, duration did not return to the original level, but actually increased.

For the second treatment period, duration stayed high.

Positive Reinforcement appeared to be effective in decreasing the frequency of times the participant broke eye contact with the speaker.

During the second baseline, frequency seemed to begin to return to original level.

For the second treatment period, frequency of looking away continued to decline.

Treatment Phase Graph

Figure 3. The Duration of Eye Contact

Duration of Eye Contact in Seconds 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 50 55 34 30 35 44 32 28 28 40 20 34 28 32 61 72 62 64 61 84 76 98 102 86 87 92 101 94 96 101 84 74 73 84 84

Days

Seconds

Treatment Phase Graph

Figure 2. The Frequency of Eye Contact

Baseline 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 24 22 20 27 18 24 16 18 14 20 17 24 26 21 12 14 9 11 16 18 13 18 13 24 23 22 19 16 11 15 6 11 9 14 11

Days

Frequency of Eye Contact

Limitations and Recommendations

The observer should not know the subject recording the behavior, for the subject may have maintained eye contact because she wanted her friend’s approval of the behavior.

Also, it may help the behavior to last longer if the subject did not know she was being recorded.

The subject should be recorded during conversation with different individuals in order to discover if the target behavior was generalized to all conversations including conversations with strangers.

The experiment should last longer so that ABAB trends could be more confirmed.

References

Amerikaner, M. (1980). Self-disclosure: A study of verbal and coverbal intimacy. Journal of Psychology, 104(2), 221.

Aronson, E., Wilson, T., & Akert, R. (2010). Social psychology (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education.

Baker, S., & Edelmann, R. (2002). Is social phobia related to lack of social skills? Duration of skill-related behaviours and ratings of behavioural adequacy. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41(3), 243-257.

Richardson, D. C., Dale, R., & Kirkham, N. Z. (2007). The art of conversation is coordination: Common ground and the coupling of eye movements during dialogue. Psychological Science, 18(5), 407-413.

Tetreault, A., & Lerman, D. C. (2010). Teaching social skills to children with Autism using point-of-view video modeling. Education & Treatment of Children, 33(3), 395-419.

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