reply to classmates discussion
American Psychological Association (APA) format of writing has a rich history. Examine the readings and any online sources you need to prepare for this discussion. Explain the history and background of the use of APA style and format in the fields of psychology and sociology. How does it influence the writing in these fields? Why are these standards important?
Reply 1 ( 100 words) Brennan
APA format, which was previously known as the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (Staines 2019), has existed for almost a century after it was created in the year 1929 “when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers convened and sought to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, that would codify the many components of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension” (Turner, 2019 ). The founders believed that under the previous format that researchers and educators were writing in, that research was being limited and credibility questioned. APA format is most predominantly used in the fields of social sciences and education. APA ushered in the new era of psychology allowing for more universal and widely accepted form of writing to be the standard for those doing research and writing in the subjects of sociology and psychology. APA formant serves not only as a standard to those researching and writing in sociology and psychology, but also serves as a guide. Due to all the research submitted in these categories, consistency was needed, and APA format provided this consistency. Using standards such as APA and MLA are important because “using an accepted, organized standard style or format is imperative in writing a paper that will clearly and effectively make its point. Standardized citation formats also enable the reader to locate the information that you used to write up your research as well as to give attribution to the authors of the material you used” (Staines 2019).
Reply 2 ( 100 words) Joseph
The history of American Psychological Association (APA) style was derived in the late 1900’s and was formally established in the 1920’s to provide standardizations in writing in the psychological and sociological fields of study, just to name a few (The History of APA Style, 2014). The seven page article established in 1929 was aimed to help authors produce more consistent bodies of work and improve the quality of their writing. Credibility for the author and their work is also a major factor that the APA has provided for its scholars. Peer reviewed articles provide strong respectable content from the author and provide reliability for research in topics like sociology or psychology.
The APA guidelines also benefit readers by providing content that is organized, free from errors, and strategically referenced for easier access if they want to review more material on the subject. Furthermore, an author that uses the APA format would have a more difficult time plagiarizing someone else’s work. This provides two outcomes, the originator continues to benefit from their original work, and the new writer benefits from using the research available to them to form their own ideas based on what they researched. The result will provide content that will expose if the writer grasped the information from the research and was able to apply that knowledge to their readers.
Social and behavioral sciences have struggled with being recognized as “real sciences.” How has the use of the scientific method influenced psychology and sociology? What is the significance of the scientific method? How does it guide research in these fields?
Reply 1 (100 words) Joseph
according to Admin (2015), there is a recognizable difference between science and social sciences largely in part to the consistent outcome of a scientific experiment within the “real science” fields that cannot be replicated in the study of social sciences. Pure, natural, and physical sciences use a strict methodology to prove or disprove a fact. When tested multiple times, the expectation is that the outcome will be the same and that the theory has been proven and is accurate. In contrast, social sciences must factor in the human element in its methodology thus making the research difficult because human behavior constantly changes. Additionally, unlike pure, natural, and physical sciences that can be researched in a controlled setting, social science relies on collecting raw data that can often be unreliable because a subject may adapt their feelings or reactions to satisfy the research.
Research by Lumen Learning (n.d.), states that using the scientific method in social science research helps provide parameters to collect the most accurate data. The data obtained from scientific method research helps provide a logical explanation for perceived knowledge or opinion. With the unpredictability of human reaction, having a model that is organized is imperative for asking the right questions to elicit the proper responses. This helps provide consistency and more measurable results. The scientific method provides reliable information to help predict the behavior of a person or a group and gives validity to the research of a social science discipline.
Reply 2 ( 100 words) Bre
The scientific method has been proven to be a useful tool in influencing and assisting the fields of sociology and psychology. “The scientific method provides a systematic, organized series of steps that help ensure objectivity and consistency in exploring a social problem. They provide the means for accuracy, reliability, and validity. In the end, the scientific method provides a shared basis for discussion and analysis” (Merton 1963). The scientific method is significant because it is the foundation for research design, data collection, data analysis, and conclusions (Staines 2019). The scientific method allows for purpose for the research/report to be narrowed down to what the author wants to research and what the author is hoping to comprehend and learn during and after the research is complete. In developing a research question in the social sciences, researchers often look for the answer to how or why people behave, think, or act in the manners with which they do. Thus, because the fields of sociology and psychology study human behavior, instead of natural processes or chemical reactions like other sciences, the scientific method is all the more applicable due to the fact that “a scientific process of research establishes parameters that help make sure results are objective and accurate. Scientific methods provide limitations and boundaries that focus a study and organize its results” (Lumen Learning 2103) Sociologists may discover the scientific method not only be useful for collecting data, but also to process, analyze and interpret the data for which they find. The scientific method allows social science researchers and scholars to deliberately apply scientific logic and objectivity when researching topics regarding human behavior, social trends, and how and why things happen in the world (Lumen Learning 2013).
Write a poem from the point of view of another person or object. It can be a friend, a family member, a celebrity—whoever, or whatever you like, fictional or nonfictional.
Writing persona poems allows the poet to wear a mask and speak from another’s shoes, with another’s tongue. In that way, the genre is wide open for experimenting with different voices in poetry. With a persona poem, the poet steps into the mind, or identity of another person, or thing, and speaks from that “persona.” It’s a fabulous genre of poetry to explore, especially as an early poet.
Persona poems can be incredibly powerful, but they can sometimes be offensive, too. It’s best to do some research to make sure the historical, social, and cultural contexts of one’s chosen persona are understood before one begins writing.
Please keep the following criteria in mind for the Persona Poem:
· The poem must be 16 lines or longer.
· Poem must be broken up into at least two stanzas. (See pages 23-29 in Starkey’s Creative Writing.)
· Poem must include enjambment of at least two lines.
· Poem should be written in first-person (“I”).
· Title of poem should be persona’s name.
· Poem is single-spaced, uses Times New Roman, 12-point font, and has one-inch margins all around.