Data necessary to conduct public health research is often not available in one database/from one source

Question 1 of 254.0 PointsData necessary to conduct public health research is often not available in one database/from one source. The term which refers to the joining of data from two or more sources, for example employment records and mortality data is referred to as:A. computerized bibliographic databasesB. MEDLINEC. dual databasesD. record linkageReset SelectionQuestion 2 of 254.0 PointsWhich of the following data sources is most likely to be representative of the general health status of a populationA. Hospital outpatient statisticsB. Absenteeism dataC. Data from public health clinicsD. A morbidity survey of the general populationReset SelectionQuestion 3 of 254.0 PointsStudies of nativity and migration have reported thatA. admission rates of foreign-born persons to mental hospitals were lower than for native-born persons.B. diseases found in less developed regions are no longer a problem in the United States.C. immunization programs in developing countries have been highly successful.D. some migrants have inadequate immunization status with respect to vaccine-preventable diseases. Reset SelectionQuestion 4 of 254.0 PointsWhich is not a disease designated as notifiable at the National Level:A. PertussisB. Small PoxC. Hepatitis AD. All Varicella CasesReset SelectionQuestion 5 of 254.0 PointsThe following question is based on the information given below. Comparison of mortality rates due to cancer of the uterus in users and non-users of supplemental estrogen revealed: Mortality rates per 100,000 Users of estrogen:Age45-54 =3.0 Age55-70=17.0 Non-users of estrogen:Age45-54 =1.0Age55-70 =6.0 A valid conclusion derived from the above data concerning mortality among estrogen users is: A. The mortality rates for cancer of the uterus are lower in estrogen users than non-users in both age groups studiedB. A causal relationship is demonstrated between the use of estrogen and incidence of uterine cancerC. Mortality from cancer of the uterus rises with age regardless of whether or not estrogen is used D. The mortality rate is lower in non-users than users because the symptoms of uterine cancer are detected earlier in the former group of womenReset SelectionQuestion 6 of 254.0 PointsIn case-control studies, the odds ratio is used as an estimate of the relative risk. In order for this approximation to be reasonable, some conditions must be met. Which of the following conditions is not necessary in order to use the odds ratio to estimate the relative risk?A. With respect to exposure, controls are representative of the population to which you want to generalize your resultsB. The event (disease) under study is rare in the populationC. The exposure in question is rare in the populationD. Cases are representative of all casesReset SelectionQuestion 7 of 254.0 PointsCase-control studies are among the best observational designs to study diseases ofA. high prevalenceB. high validityC. low case fatalityD. low prevalenceReset SelectionQuestion 8 of 254.0 PointsA large medical center’s oncology program reported an increased number of cases of pancreatic cancer during a certain month. The hospital’s epidemiologist decided to research the problem. Tumor registry records were searched to identify all cases of pancreatic cancer during a five-year period; cancer patients were matched with patients treated for other diseases during the same five-year period. All subjects in the study were questioned about lifestyle factors including alcohol, tea, and coffee consumption. The resulting data are as follows: Cancer Patients Men Women Lifestyle VariableAlcohol 185 120 Tea Drinking 140 110 Coffee Drinking 190 140 Other Patients Men WomenLifestyle VariableAlcohol 270 260 Tea Drinking 230 225 Coffee Drinking 270 240 Note: Total number of male cancer patients = 200 Total number of female cancer patients = 150 Total number of male patients (other diseases) = 300 Total number of female patients (other diseases) = 300 Use this data to answer the next 5 questions. What type of study is this?A. Case-controlB. CohortC. Case-seriesD. DescriptiveReset SelectionQuestion 9 of 254.0 PointsDoes this study have an exposure status variable?A. Yes, lifestyleB. Yes, disease typeC. Yes, gender of patientD. Yes, gender of patient and disease typeReset SelectionQuestion 10 of 254.0 PointsWhich number best approximates risk associated with Alcohol Drinking among Men: A. 2.11B. 0.92C. 0.71D. 1.37Reset SelectionQuestion 11 of 254.0 PointsWhich number best approximates risk associated with Coffee Drinking among Men? A. 2.11B. 0.94C. 1.02D. 3.50Reset SelectionQuestion 12 of 254.0 PointsBased on your calculations above, which factor has the strongest association with cancer for men?A. the factors show no variation in the associationB. not enough information to determineC. Coffee drinkingD. Alcohol consumptionReset SelectionQuestion 13 of 254.0 PointsExamples of descriptive epidemiologic studies do not usually include:A. Cohort studiesB. CountsC. Case seriesD. Cross-sectional studiesReset SelectionQuestion 14 of 254.0 PointsA five-year prospective cohort study has just been completed. The study was designed to assess the association between supplemental vitamin A exposure and mortality and morbidity for measles. The RR for incidence of measles was 0.75 and the RR for measles mortality was 0.5. Which statement is correct? A. A cohort study is not an appropriate study design in this case because the association between one exposure and two different outcomes is being considered B. One of the problems that this study may have faced is individuals lost to follow-up during the five-year period C. A cohort study is not a good design to study this association because measles is a very common diseaseD. None of the aboveReset SelectionQuestion 15 of 254.0 PointsRegarding the RR reported above, which statement is correctA. Exposure to vitamin A appears to protect against morbidity and mortality for measles. B. Exposure to vitamin A appears to be a risk factor for morbidity and mortality for measlesC. Exposure to vitamin A is not associated with morbidity and mortality for measlesD. Exposure to vitamin A is a risk factor for morbidity and a protective factor for mortality for measlesReset SelectionQuestion 16 of 254.0 PointsSubjects for an exposure-based cohort study (when the exposure of interest is rare) would be selected Most appropriately from:A. certain occupational groups (such as battery workers (when evaluating lead exposure))B. the residents of a large U.S. countyC. male Harvard alumni from 1916 to 1950D. none of the aboveReset SelectionQuestion 17 of 254.0 PointsNested case-control studies:A. use subjects drawn from a cohort study.B. provide a degree of control over confoundingC. reduce the cost of collecting exposure informationD. all of the aboveReset SelectionQuestion 18 of 254.0 PointsPractical considerations in the design of cohort studies do not usually includeA. availability of exposure dataB. size and cost of the cohortC. follow-up issuesD. age of the investigatorReset SelectionQuestion 19 of 254.0 PointsThe purpose of double-blinding in clinical trials is toA. reduce error that results from the way in which the outcome is assessedB. reduce error that results from subjects’ knowledge of their assignment to study conditionsC. reduce error that results from non-random assignment to study conditionsD. A and B onlyE. all of the aboveReset SelectionQuestion 20 of 254.0 PointsPhase III clinical trials for a cancer drug involveA. initial testing in humansB. establishing toxicity levelsC. comparing survival rates for the new drug versus existing therapiesD. establishing maximum tolerated doseReset


electionQuestion 21 of 254.0 PointsThe purpose of randomization is toA. reduce error that results from the way in which the outcome is assessedB. reduce error that results from subjects’ participation in the trialC. reduce error that results from assignment to study conditionsD. A and C onlyE. all of the aboveReset SelectionQuestion 22 of 254.0 PointsWhich types of health issues are likely to be addressed in community trialsA. Smoking cessationB. HIV/AIDSC. Healthy eating trialsD. All of the above topicsReset SelectionQuestion 23 of 254.0 PointsYou would like to assess the effectiveness and efficiency of delivering health services through your clinic. After selecting a 10% sample of all patient visits during the past six months, you are able to characterize the patient population utilizing your clinic in terms of age, race, sex, method of referral, diagnostic category, therapy provided, method of payment, daily patient load, and clinic staff work schedules. Which type of study design most appropriately characterizes this situation?A. Case-control studyB. Prospective cohort studyC. Historical prospective cohort studyD. Cross-sectional studyE. Clinical trialF. Community trialReset SelectionQuestion 24 of 254.0 PointsYou are interested in finding out whether middle-aged men who have premature heartbeats are at greater risk of developing a myocardial infarction (heart attack) than men whose heartbeats are regular. Electrocardiogram (ECG) examinations are performed on all male office employees 35 years of age or older who work for oil companies in Houston. The ECG tracings are classified as irregular or regular. Five years later, myocardial infarction rates are compared between those with and those without baseline ECG irregularities. Which type of study design most appropriately characterizes this situation?A. Community trialB. Cross-sectional study C. Prospective cohort studyD. Historical prospective cohort studyReset SelectionQuestion 25 of 254.0 PointsEcological studies are an analytical study design that are advantageous in many ways. Which is not true about the ecological study design?A. they are cost and time effectiveB. they generally make use of secondary dataC. they do not collect data on the individual level of exposureD. they collect data on the individual level of exposureReset Selection

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