Read Passage B carefully, and then answer Question 3 on the Question Paper. Passage B: Flying squirrels Although they are called flying squirrels, these small mammals do not really fly: they glide usi

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Read Passage B carefully, and then answer Question 3 on the Question Paper. Passage B: Flying squirrels Although they are called flying squirrels, these small mammals do not really fly: they glide using a thin, furred membrane of skin that extends from their wrists to their ankles. By gliding with outstretched arms and legs, the flying squirrel is able to move about the tree tops, for up to 90 metres at a time. Holding onto the tree trunk, the squirrel judges the distance and, using its hind legs, it leaps into the air. During ‘flight’ the arms and legs are stretched to form a flat surface area for gliding. The tail flips downward and is used for steering and as a brake. The feather-light landing takes place in a vertical, upright position with the back feet making contact first. Weighing 100–167 grams, the flying squirrel is the smallest of all the squirrels. They make a soft churning noise or a chirp. They use lichen, dried grass, and finely shredded bark to make nests in tree cavities. Sometimes they will make use of an abandoned woodpecker nest. When natural cavities are scarce, an abandoned bird’s nest will be modified. In some areas, they nest in bird boxes and in attics. Their velvet soft fur varies in colour, ranging from cinnamon or grey to a red or blackish-brown. The tail is broad, flattened and fluffy. Large, black eyes dominate the head and the ears are small and lightly furred. The squirrels’ diet consists of berries, blossom, buds, cherries, and nuts, supplemented by insects, stolen bird’s eggs, or small nestling birds. The major predators are foxes, weasels, martens, and owls. Protection is found by living in the trees and being active after dark. It is the only squirrel species that is nocturnal and spends the majority of its life in a tree. Hence, most people have never seen the spectacular sight of a flying squirrel gliding through the air.

Read carefully Passage B, Safari: Are too many tourists killing Africa’s wildlife?, in the Reading Booklet Insert and then answer Question 3 on this Question Paper. Question 3 What were the problems for wildlife reserves and their surrounding communities in 2010 and what was being done to help tackle these problems, according to Passage B? You must use continuous writing (not note form) and use your own words as far as possible. Your summary should not be more than 250 words. Up to 15 marks are available for the content of your answer, and up to 5 marks for the quality of your writing.

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