A B C D 1. Sporophytes
A. are produced by spores
B. produce the next generation sporophytes
C. are diploid
D. produce gametes by meiosis


A B C D 2. Release of moss spores is aided by
A. protonemata
B. gametonemata
C. peristomial filaments
D. rhizoids


A B C D 3. Male mosses often possess a
A. splash cup
B. archegonium
C. calyptra
D. all of the above


A B C D 4. Mosses
A. have vascular tissue
B. have swimming sperm
C. have leaves
D. all of the above


A B C D 5. Gemmae
A. are found on the stalks of sporophytes
B. are single, haploid cells
C. are propagules of diploid cells
D. grow to becom gametophytes


A B C D 6. Marchantia is
A. dioecious
B. cosexual
C. monoecious
D. none of the above


A B C D 7. Bryophyte splash cups
A. are found only in mosses
B. are found on all male gametophytes
C. all release swimming sperm
D. none of the above


A B C D 8. Sexes of Marchantia can be distinguished by
A. the possession or absence of gemma cups
B. the shape of the gametophore
C. the presence or absence of a protonema
D. none of the above


A B C D 9. Meiosis occurs in
A. gemmae
B. sporangia
C. gametophytes
D. antheridia and archegonia


A B C D 10. Water and mineral absorption is increased by
A. protonemas
B. elongated cells in the stipe
C. mycorhizae
D. peristomial filaments and elaters 






A B C D 1. The first vascular plant for which there is a fossil record appeared
A. in the Devonian about 410 mya
B. in the Devonian about 390 mya
C. at the beginning of the Devonian about 420 mya
D. in the mid-Silurian about 433 mya


A B C D 2. The early tracheophytes are distinguished from all bryophytes by
A. the possession of an embryo during the life history
B. the elimination of the gametophyte stage
C. a branched sporophyte stage
D. the presence of stomata


A B C D 3. The earliest plant identified as a vascular plant, but one that does not appear to have true vascular tissue with thickened cell walls is
A. Rhynia
B. Horneophyton
C. Asteroxylon
D. Aglaophyton


A B C D 4. It is likely that the success of plants colonizing land was dependent on
A. the production multiflagellate sperm
B. a symbiosis with fungi
C. the development of leaves
D. all of the above


A B C D 5. The RhynieChert deposit
A. is named after the first plant, Rhynia, identified from the this flora
B. formed in the upper Devonian, approximately 380 mya
C. includes modern plants growing only in Scotland
D. includes both vascular and non-vascular plants


A B C D 6. Stomata
A. are lacking in all bryophytes
B. occur on the upper surfaces of gametophytes and the capsules of sporophytes
C. occur only on the stems of sporophytes of the earliest vascular plants
D. none of the above


A B C D 7. The exquisite preservation of the rhyniophyte flora depended on
A. extremely fine silt deposited in sedimentary layers
B. preservation on land where decomposition was reduced
C. preservation in boiling hot, mineral-rich water
D. their growth on soils containing silicates that were incorporated into their living tissues


A B C D 8. The rhyniophyte flora includes vascular plants all of which
A. are clearly members of the phylum Rhyniophyta
B. produced pollen dated to 400-412 mya
C. are extinct
D. all of the above


A B C D 9. The study of pollen
A. is referred to as palynology
B. is used in biostratigraphic relative dating techniques
C. yielded an age estimate of the RhynieChert comparable to radiometric dating
D. all of the above


A B C D 10. The column of vascular tissue in the earliest vascular plants
A. contained a solid strand of phloem at its center
B. contained a core of pith surrounded by xylem
C. was a cylinder of xylem just below the surface that provided suport on land
D. was a protostele



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