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Your responses should be substantive, which means that you should provide a significant level of detail in your reply and show active engagement by referencing the readings, drawing on your own experiences, giving your opinions, respectfully disagreeing where appropriate or asking questions designed to generate further discussion on the material and its implications outside the realm of the question.  Please help with a responsive response to the following postings: Only 150 words per questionswith citations please.


In the article: The Distorting Mirror of Hell, it explains how Dante’s world exist. Everyone has a particular role, destination and fate because he believes that nothing happens by chance. With this thinking evil must exist also and be handled differently so that every soul and receive it rewards and this is why Hell exist. Hell exists to punish those who sin and justice triumphs. It is Gods power that puts people to hell. The article explains to us how humans are the only beings that are capable of salvation and are able to understand the language of that saints in paradise. At the same time this means that humans must bear all responsibility and for their sins and punishments. I believe that this article does show the theme of good verse’s evil because it explains how people are rewarded for doing what they are put on the Earth for and those who act out against God’s will will be punished. 

There are several divisions and circles which are determined by the type of sin committed. Sins are categorized according to their severity and include, lust, murder, fraud, taking bribe among others mainly depending on the level of opposition from God’s will that we treat each other with the love he extends to us as individuals. For instance, a sin punished in the Eighth Circle of Hell, such as accepting a bribe, should be considered worse than a sin punished in the Sixth Circle of Hell, such as murder (Dante, White & Doré, 1948).

Three sins: Taking a bribe: Taking bribe makes someone become fraudulent and this affects care and love.
Lust: This is where a person desires someone else’s property and may steal or cheat to get what they want. 
Murder: This is one of the most sinful of sins because it ends  someone’s life without God’s will and that person cannot fulfill their purpose.


Hede, J. (2008). Jews and muslims in dante’s vision.: European Review, 16(1), 101 – 114. doi:

This is an article about a man by the name of Dante. Dante considered himself a medieval Christian, and his duties were that of a spiritual adviser. Dante traveled through the nine stages of hell, he saw first hand the levels of sin, and he wanted to forewarn the people of their actions and its consequences. In this writing, Dante speaks of the good and evil between the righteous Christian and the corrupted Christian. Dante viewed Jews and Muslims as cultural groups who were shown the right path to Christianity, but each rejected the lifestyle and beliefs of a righteous Christian. Though Dante saw himself as a Christian, he saw the Jews and Muslims as non-Christians. Dante used his life as a Christian to generalize the lifestyle of all Christians; regardless of cultural background or religious beliefs. Dante’s personal bias towards the Jews and Muslims always led him to place them beneath the religious standings of himself.

This journal article has a clearly identified author with appropriate credentials. Jesper Hede holds a PhD in European Studies and an MA in Italian and Medieval Studies. He has authored articles such as: Printed in the United kingdom Jews and Muslims in Dante’s Vision, Ranking Types of Reading: Descriptive and Epic Readings in Dante Studies, Dante’s Exegetical Pattern of Thoughts, Northern Time Travel in the Eighteenth Century, and Unity and Difference in Dante’s Universal Vision, to name a few. In Denmark, at the University of Aarhus, Hede’s doctoral dissertation is on comparative literature and the history of rhetoric. At the University of Copenhagen, Hede is Faculty of Humanities, and he also serves as the head of deans.

According to The Inferno, fraud is considered the worst sin. In the nine circles of hell, fraud is ranked as the eighth (VIII) circle. What has been explained about the nine circles of hell is that the larger circles closest to the top are minor sins, and they are in a position closest to heaven, and the smaller circles near the bottom are major sins, and they are in a position closest to the pits of hell. The circle of fraud has ten areas within itself: (1) panderers and seducers, (2) flatterers, (3) simony, (4) sorcerers, astrologers, and false profits, (5) barrators, (6) hypocrites, (7) thieves, (8) fraudulent advisers, (9) those who promoted social discord, and (10) falsifiers (South University Online, 2014). Fraud is the complete opposite of God’s love; for it involves malicious acts. Three additional sins which contrast with God’s love are: Circle III: Gluttony, a lesser sin whereas man finds greater pleasures in overindulging in eating, drinking, and intoxicants, than in the love for God; Circle VII: Violence, a greater sin whereas man becomes the taker of life and/or property, while God is the giver of such life and property; and circle IX: Treason, a sin whereas man has betrayed the love and trust of those closest to him. While God has given mankind the gift of love, man will take advantage of such a gift for his own personal gain.

Gluttony is the third largest circle descending into the pits of hell. Gluttony is not oftentimes viewed as a sin against God, but it is. To overindulge in anything is a sign of greed. Gluttony also reflects an area of importance. “Whose end is destruction, whose god is their appetite, and whose glory is in their shame, who set their minds on earthly things” (Philippians 3: 19 New American Standard Bible). It is said, whatever a man treasures the most becomes his god. “And he to me: Remember now your science, which says that when a thing has more perfection, so much the greater is its pain or pleasure” “Inferno, Canto 6.106). In the Inferno, gluttons were blinded, they lived in filth, and they endured a constant cold rain. This was a replica of their wasteful lives.

Circle VII: Violence, a sin I thought should have ranked in the ninth circle. Violence against others, self, or property is a serious crime; far worst than fraud or treason. God is the giver of life, and He gave ten commandments for man to obey. “Thou shall not kill” (Exodus 20:13 NIV). In the Inferno, one who committed a violent act endured an eternal life of fire storms and blood boiling rivers; rivers filled with the blood they shed and their own. “Despondency was bursting from their eyes; this side, then that, their hands kept fending off, at times the flame, at times the burning soil:” (Inferno, Canto 17.46). Each and everyday they were tortured as they tortured.

Circle IX: Treason, the sin closest to the pits of hell. Though betraying someone in close relationship is wrong, I believe violence and wrath are far worst. Treason should have ranked at circle five. To betray someone interferes with trust, in some cases, betrayal has led to death/murder. In the event of death/murder, this act range amongst violence. “The very tongue that first had wounded me, sending the color up in both my cheeks, was then to cure me with its medicine” (Inferno, Canto 31.1). In the Inferno, treason is not considered the worst sin, but rather close to the worst sin (fraud). Jesus was betrayed by one of His disciples. “And Judas went to the chief priests and the officers of the temple guards and discussed with them how he might betray Jesus” (Luke 22: 4 New International Version). Judas betrayed Jesus by handing Him over to His killers to die on the cross.

Thank you for your help as I am having difficulty.

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