The Length should not exceed 3500 words (excluding references).

Please answer ONE of the following questions (please note additional guidelines I upload):

  1. How have women’s organisations assisted in promoting human (resource) development capabilities, as well as empowerment, in organisations and/or in societies more widely? Your discussion should critically assess theoretical debates about the nature and complexity of empowerment in diverse geographical regions. (You are encouraged to draw on case examples of NGOs/INGOs and Civil Society Organisations).
  2. This essay comprises two parts: a) briefly assess why the Millennium Development Goals have failed to deliver on equality promises; and b) critically examine the viability of the Sustainable Development Goals with respect to their gender goals and commitments. In so doing, explore how appropriate governance, reporting, multiple social actor collaboration, and measurement strategies can be implemented to attain equity by 2030 (with regard to part (b) you can present either a broad argument or focus on one country/region to use as an example when composing your answer).
  3. Critically examine why Gender National Action Plans (GNAPs) are important for social transformation and economic growth. Choosing TWO countries Gender/Equality National Action Plans: a) assess what is meant by GNAP in each country context; b) critically assess the national systems and institutional structures (or ‘mechanisms’) each country has put in place that are tasked with ensuring that country actually works toward gender equality; and c) suggest practical strategies that can improve gender representation/participation, especially in areas of political leadership and decision-making (not necessarily at national level, but consider these factors at all levels of organisations and society).
  4. “[D]espite the [breadth of Rwandan national ICT-related] efforts regarding the inclusion of both women and men in the domain of ICT, Rwanda still shows a number of weaknesses. For example, the ICT sector remains mostly male-dominated. Gaps have been identified at the level of how ICTs are used to promote rights for women and girls, empower women for different kind of activities, increase women’s participation in decision making and provide women’s employment in ICT and related sectors.” (Mumporeze and Prieler, 2017: 1288). Making particular reference to a country case study of your choice, critically review Gender and ICT skills development. Include in your discussion, the particular role of organizations in facilitating knowledge and skills development among women and girls.
  5. Explain how globalization is a gendered process and why its impact varies, or is uneven, across different countries or regions (or organizations), and thus results in unequal opportunities and constraints for women and men. Suggest practical HRD policies that can counter the inequities of globalization processes in order to incorporate voices of the marginalised and encourage all stakeholders to strive for equality and social justice. Your discussion should include two countries or take a regional focus. It may also focus on one policy area such as poverty, work, health, environment, property, violence or take a more general perspective.
  6. “You cannot change norms if you are only talking to women and girls about changing the norms that restrict their voice and agency. You have to broaden that conversation” (from ‘Empowering Women & Girls’ panel discussion; video link available on Blackboard). Discuss, by using examples from developing country/economy contexts, or choose a specific country or region, and pay particular attention to: a) the risks or obstacles faced by challenging, questioning, or even defying social norms or mores; b) the contemporary role of men in Gender and Development; and (c) in broadening ‘the conversation’ suggest, with justification, what items should be on the current agenda of such a discussion?


a) In your answers you are encouraged to demonstrate your understanding of different gender and development theories and concepts by using illustrative case examples from different geographic regions or countries (e.g. the Middle East as a region; or Nigeria and Lesotho, or China and Malaysia as examples of contrasting/comparable countries). You should clearly indicate this in the introduction to your essay.

b) Your essays should use literature from across this unit’s lectures and handbook with which to build your arguments and answers; it is expected that a high degree of appropriate reading will be clear and obvious in your essays.

c) You are encouraged to utilise gender development/inequality indicators produced by the WEF, UN, World Bank, and research institutions such as Freedom House, the Asian Development Bank, the African Development Bank, or the Islamic Development Bank, as well as country government reports and private/public organization reports/data. An assignment workshop will be held near the end of the programme in May where tutorial support will be available to assist with essay plans. You can, of course, make contact with the course convenor or any of the individual session lecturers.

d) The essay questions do not necessarily correspond to individual lectures and you are encouraged, too, to draw on a variety of material presented in the module’s lectures, reading lists, and tutorials as long as it is appropriate to the essay question you are answering.

e) You must compile a properly formatted References List (Harvard method) for this assignment citing appropriate GAD literature cited in this course. You should also reference any organisational documents and/or websites you have utilised. This list is excluded from your overall word count.

f) You must use references that within 10 years, avoid outdated references.

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