answer all the multiple choice questions organization of the cell the basic unit of life its organization critical to its ability to carry out all life activities and will learn whom the shape and size are adapted for its function the cell is under the

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A basal body anchors what part of a cell?

a.

lysosome

b.

centriole

c.

ribosome

d.

thylakoid

e.

flagellum

Proteins made on ribosomes may be further modified within which organelle?

a.

peroxisomes.

b.

mitochondria.

c.

Golgi complex.

d.

nucleus.

e.

lysosomes.

What is found between the primary walls of adjacent cells for cells to adhere tightly to one another?

a.

middle lamella

b.

intermediate filaments

c.

collagen

d.

secondary cell wall

e.

cytosol

The cis face of the Golgi complex is most directly involved in which process?

a.

accepting vesicles from the ER

b.

catalyzing the efficient folding of proteins

c.

transporting molecules out of the Golgi

d.

packaging molecules in vesicles

e.

synthesizing proteins

What is one cellular characteristic found in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

a.

chloroplast

b.

nucleus

c.

nucleoplasm

d.

plasma membrane

e.

mitochondria

A glycoprotein destined for secretion from the cell would move through the Golgi complex which sequence?

a.

trans face to medial region to cis face

b.

trans face to cis face to medial region

c.

medial face to trans face to cis face

d.

cis face to trans face to medial region

e.

cis face to medial region to trans face

During an infection, white blood cells travel to the infected site and phagocytize the pathogens. After phagocytosis, primary lysosomes fuse with the phagocytic vesicle to form a larger vesicle called a secondary lysosome. The purpose for this process is to:

a.

degrade the bacteria and export it from the cell.

b.

introduce antibodies to the phagocytic vesicles.

c.

coat the bacteria in lipids derived from the Golgi complex, which cover and smother them.

d.

wrap the pathogen in additional membrane, rendering them harmless.

e.

mix the pathogens with strong hydrolytic enzymes and destroy them.

What is the purpose of the cristae of the inner membrane of mitochondria?

a.

Tto transport waste

b.

To increase surface area

c.

To store food

d.

To metabolize lipids

e.

To break down nutrients

The accompanying image is the product which type of microscope?

a.

confocal fluorescence microscope

b.

phase-contrast light microscope

c.

Nomarski differential interference microscope

d.

scanning electron microscope

e.

transmission electron microscope

As a result of testing an experimental drip on a vertebrate cell, you notice that the cell cortex becomes more fluid, and although the cell remains strong, it loses its ability to move. Based on this evidence, you correctly conclude that the drug most directly affected:

a.

β-tubulin.

b.

α-tubulin.

c.

myosin.

d.

intermediate filaments.

e.

actin filaments.

The force necessary to cause microtubules of cilia and flagella to slide alongside one another is provided through the action of ____ proteins, which derive the energy to perform their work directly from ____ molecules.

a.

tubulin; ATP

b.

kinesin; ADP

c.

dynein; ATP

d.

kinesin; glucose

e.

dynein; ADP

A single cell in a smoker’s lung has become cancerous. It doubles its DNA and divides much faster than a normal lung cell. The most likely change that would have caused this condition took place in the:

a.

lysosome.

b.

nucleolus.

c.

nucleus.

d.

mitochondria.

e.

microtubule.

Plants lack organ systems for disposing of toxic metabolic waste products. Their cells’ vacuoles are like what animal cell organelle?

a.

lysosomes

b.

nucleolus

c.

endoplasmic reticulum

d.

mitochondria

e.

chloroplasts

The ratio of the size of the image seen with the microscope to the actual size of the object is called:

a.

magnification.

b.

fractionation.

c.

centrifugation.

d.

resolution.

e.

resolving power.

If a toxin, such as a bacterial toxin, destroys ribosomes, what cellular activity will be affected first?

a.

DNA synthesis

b.

movement

c.

active transport

d.

protein synthesis

e.

energy storage

What is the microtubule arrangement of a flagellum or cilium?

a.

9 x1 array

b.

9 x 3 structure

c.

9 + 1 array

d.

9 + 3 arrangement

e.

9 + 2 arrangement

The smooth ER is the primary site for the synthesis of proteins and cholesterol needed to make membranes.
__________________

True

False

How does the scanning electron microscope differ from the transmission electron microscope?

a.

The SEM relies on the detection of electrons from the beam after contact with the specimens.

b.

The SEM can view a live specimen.

c.

The SEM can view the internal structure of a cell.

d.

The SEM gives a three dimensional image of the object being studied.

e.

The SEM utilizes a beam of light that passes through the specimen.

DNA is associated with RNA and certain proteins, forming a complex called:

a.

genes.

b.

chromosomes.

c.

nucleus.

d.

nucleoli.

e.

chromatin.

Upon observing a cell of a grass blade, you notice a prominent sac that occupies a large portion of the cell. Which organelle is this?

a.

lysosome

b.

chloroplasts

c.

vacuole

d.

mitochondria

e.

nucleus

Evidence that all living cells have a common origin is best illustrated by the:

a.

fact that cells are the building blocks of the most complex plants.

b.

cell theory, which states that the cell is the basic unit of life.

c.

basic similarities in cell structure and chemistry.

d.

fact that all new cells come from previously existing cells.

e.

idea that cells are the smallest units that can carry out all life activities.

Refer to the accompanying figure. If you treated this organelle to remove ONLY the chlorophyll, which label indicates the portion of the organelle that would be most directly affected by this treatment?

a.

A

b.

B

c.

C

d.

D

e.

The smooth ER is the primary site for the synthesis of phospholipids and cholesterol needed to make ____.

a.

cell membranes

b.

ATP

c.

hormones

d.

DNA

e.

ribosomes

What is the primary function of mitochondria?

a.

transformation of energy

b.

material storage

c.

capturing light for photosynthesis

d.

protein synthesis

e.

lipid synthesis

For the following medical conditions, describe the likely cellular organelle or structure that has been affected in such a way as to cause the condition (note: There may be more than one organelle or structure involved):

A.

The sperm of a man cannot swim, thus rendering him infertile.

B.

A child experiences kidney failure due to Fabry’s disease where the cells lining the inside of the kidney tubule accumulate abnormally large amounts of glycolipids that are usually degraded by enzymes.

C.

A person dies within minutes after ingesting cyanide because ATP is no longer being synthesized.

DNA must transcribe its information into what type of molecule before leaving the nucleus and entering the cytoplasm?

a.

RNA

b.

polypeptide

c.

chromosomes

d.

mRNA

e.

myosin

Golgi complexes of prokaryotic cells produce extracellullar polysaccharides that are used to make cell walls.
__________________

True

False

What cellular structure is unique to plant cells and some photosynthetic fungi?

a.

nucleus

b.

chloroplasts

c.

vacuoles

d.

mitochondria

e.

endoplasmic reticulum

Figure 4-4

In the accompanying figure, the formation of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water occurs in the portion of labeled☹(IN THIS QUESTION YOU CAN LEAVE IT BLANK BECAUSE I DON’T HAVE THE IMAGE

a.

A

b.

B

c.

C

d.

D

e.

E

Intermediate filaments are most closely associated with which of the following?

a.

keratins

b.

myosin

c.

pseudopodia

d.

microvilli

e.

actin

Enzymes called proteases in the ER lumen catalyze folding of proteins into proper conformations.
__________________

True

False

Cells that secrete large amounts of glycoprotein have many Golgi stacks.
__________________

True

False

The cellular structure indicated by the arrow in the accompanying figure is responsible for:

a.

replication.

b.

protein synthesis.

c.

cellular respiration.

d.

digestion of unused organelles.

e.

lipid and fatty acid metabolism.

What does the process of differential centrifugation achieve?

a.

It separates components of the cell that have different densities.

b.

It separates different components of the cell that function differently.

c.

It allows researchers to view the contents of the cells.

d.

It analyzes the chemical components of the cell.

e.

It separates components of the cell that have a different chemical makeup

What does the nucleolus, within the nucleus, synthesize?

a.

genes

b.

DNA

c.

hormones

d.

ribosomal RNA

e.

messenger RNA

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