I’ve provided 2 discussions below that need to be responded separately. This week’s discussion is about APA concepts.

1-)APA Formatting

Hello Everyone,

Below are the few points for APA formatting which I have learned from the given video for the assignment.

Summary vs Paraphrase

In paraphrasing, someone else’s shared information, ideas and thoughts used in our own words to write research paper. It is not accepted if in paraphrasing, given information used by replacing words with synonyms. It is required to rewrite whole information as per own understanding in own way. If it doesn’t happen then it is considered as plagiarism. (Scott, 2016).

In Summary, referred study material content used in summarize way where whole information is shared in the short format. In both the cases, credit to original source need to be given by providing references and intext-citation. (Scott, 2016).


In research paper, someone else’s information used as it is then those content needs to put in double quotes and need to provide intext citation by providing author name and year of publication. If this is not used, then it is considered as plagiarism. (Scott, 2016).

In-text citation:

Whenever any information used from the source then that information needs to be cited using intext citation. There are two ways of doing it, one is by providing names of the authors in the information sentence followed by date of publication in braces. Second way is to provide author name along with date of publication at the end of the sentence. (Scott, 2016).

2-)APA concepts

American Psychological Association is the abbreviation of APA which is very important for students who are writing research papers. It is very famous style of writing research papers, journals, books, literatures etc. After going through the video by Scott, I want to explain about three concepts from that video namely paraphrasing, Quotation and In-text citations.


Paraphrasing means nothing but writing someone else’s ideas or thoughts into your own words (Scott, 2016). While paraphrasing we should not replace words with synonyms (Scott, 2016). If we do that then it is a plagiarism. We should take time to convert the author’s ideas into our own words to avoid plagiarism. An example for paraphrasing is given as follows. Studying in another country can be rewarding, but it can also be a source of considerable stress. Researchers have noted that most international students seem to struggle above all with linguistic problems (Sumer, Poyrazli, & Grahame, 2008, p.431).


If you taken a sentence from the source which you referred and copied it word-to-word in your document (Scott, 2016). Then you have put that sentence in quotations to avoid plagiarism. If you didn’t provide quotations for that copied sentence, then it is a plagiarism. It is usually best to try paraphrasing first, but if paraphrasing reduces the effectiveness of the idea, then is better to quote. After providing quotation then include citation with the authors last name, the year of publication, and the page number on which the sentence can be found (Borwin, 2008). If the original source doe not have page number, then use the paragraph number. An example for quotation is given as follows. “Teenagers become increasingly Susceptible to peer pressure as they grow older starting at age12” (Belkin et al.,2007, p.237). quotations and parentheses must be given if copied a sentence from a source which is very important.

Signal phrases:

when you write a sentence in research paper using quotation or paraphrase then you can use signal phrase or verb to introduce it (Scott, 2016). Use the verb that mostly closely captures how your source is presenting the idea. Is the author you are quoting merely saying something? Or would it be more accurate to write that the source is arguing a point, making an observation, reporting facts, drawing a conclusion, refuting an argument, or stating a belief? Choose the verb that makes the author’s stance clear (Borwin, 2008). There are many signal words like explains, comments, describes, maintains, reports, adds, compares, illustrates, states, responds, summarizes, considers, argues etc. an example for signal phrase is mentioned as follows. According to Sumer and Poyrazli (2008),” Language difficulties, in particular, appear to be a challenge for the majority of international students” (p.431). you can also write this sentence as follows. Sumer and Poyrazli (2008) argue that “Language difficulties, in particular, appear to be a challenge for the majority of international students” (p.431). Thus, the importance of signal phrase, paraphrase and quotation.

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