week 9 discussion

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It could be said that we all are born aggressive but as we mature to adulthood we become less aggressive, transferring our aggressive tendencies to more acceptable behaviors such as sports and competition. One of the ways in which theorist have describe this process learning is social learning theory. Alfred Bandura’s classic Bobo doll experiment provided research evidence that aggression, like other behaviors can be learned as well. One of the challenges is how to define aggression. Anger is an abstract concept that is hard to define unless you attribute it to some overt observable behavior.

  • If you have ever worked in a preschool or child day care, you may have observed volatile behaviors in some of the children such as hitting others, biting, slapping, yelling, and throwing objects at others. Would this observation support the premise that we are born aggressive and we learn not to be?
  • Describe the theoretical basis of the Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment. Based on the results of the experiment, explain your conclusions regarding aggressive behavior.
  • Describe what is meant by the term “aggression”? What factors in an individual need to be considered when defining aggression? How can aggression be categorized?

Justify your answers with appropriate reasoning and research from your text and course readings. Comment on the postings of at least two peers and provide an analysis of each peer’s postings while also suggesting specific additions or clarifications for improving the discussion question response.

To support your work, make sure to utilize your course and text readings. When asked, utilize outside sources. As in all assignments make sure to cite your sources in your work and provide a reference for that citation utilizing APA format.

Peacemaking.html

Peacemaking

Peace is not the absence of conflict.  It is the result of actions reducing the need for conflict. Peacemaking finds a resolution to the perceived or real threat to interests, needs, or wants of individuals involved in conflict.

One contrast between war and peace can be seen in the life of Alfred Nobel. Alfred Nobel (1833–1866) became wealthy after he invented dynamite and other types of explosives. The invention of dynamite and other explosives changed the face of warfare. In his will, Nobel set up the Nobel Prize—an award given every year for distinct and significant achievements in chemistry, physics, medicine, economics, and literature. He also set up a prize for individuals doing significant activities to achieve peace.

Nobel described the as, “. . . and one part to the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies, and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses.”

The Nobel Peace Prize

The Nobel Peace Prize is the quintessential example of what defines an individual’s or group’s efforts in achieving peace. Peace is hard to achieve and often never seems permanent.  The Nobel Peace Prize is a testament of the continued challenges to achieving peace.

Throughout its over 100-year history the Nobel Peace Prize has been awarded for contributions toward bringing people together to reduce conflict and bring fraternity between nations (Nobelprize.org, 2009).  Past laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize include Martin Luther King, Jr. (1964) and former President Jimmy Carter (2002) for their decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts.  It also includes organizations like the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (along with Al Gore, 2007) awarded for their efforts to inform the public about climate change.



Conflict.html

Conflict

When discussing conflict, the first question arising is whether conflict is purely destructive. Myers (2008) defines conflict as a “perceived incompatibility of actions or goals” (p. 468).

According to this definition, conflict is not identified as a behavior but a result of a set of behaviors in two or more individuals. In other words, conflict occurs because of a disagreement when there is a threat (perceived or real) to the interests, needs, or wants of individuals involved (Office of Quality Improvement & Office of Human Resource Development, n.d.). Conflict does not necessarily translate into hostility or violent acts. However, in some circumstances this may occur. In addition, conflict is not confined only to large entities. Whether it is young siblings having a disagreement on what television program to watch or two or more countries having a long-standing disagreement on recognizing each other’s sovereignty, the principles of conflict remain the same.

Conflict is a common and necessary occurrence in organizations. Without conflict, you have complacency and lack of growth. In Week 6, you discussed the concepts of group development and groupthink. Group development is built on conflict. If conflict doesn’t occur, the organization would plod along with the same mind-set without seeing any need for innovation or change. Realistically, conflicts occur all the time between individuals, within groups and organizations, and between groups and organizations. Conflict can be good only if there is a resolution. If conflict perpetuates without resolution, it would tend to grow into more hostile forms.

 

Next, let’s discuss peacemaking.

Myers, D. (2008). Social psychology (9th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Office of Quality Improvement & Office of Human Resource Development. (n.d.). About conflict. Retrieved from http://www.ohrd.wisc.edu/onlinetraining/resolution/aboutwhatisit.htm#index



Aggression.html

Aggression

Myers (2008) defines aggression as “physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm” (p. 345). However, this definition doesn’t encompass the complexities of aggressive behavior. In real-life scenarios, any form of aggression causes harm to others. If someone yells and threatens when there is nobody else around to hear, is it considered aggression or just yelling? This is not aggression. Aggression is the act of doing harm, which may include causing harm to self, to others, to objects, or to animals.

Aggression is a behavior, not a consequence. It cannot be judged as intentional or unintentional. For instance, if you walk up to a friend and slap your friend’s arm, your behavior would be considered as physical aggression. Slapping would be considered a behavior defining aggression. Now, consider a situation where you walk up to a friend and slap your friend’s arm because a big bee is about to sting. In this case your act of slapping will still be considered an aggressive behavior. The consequence of your action is the bee flying off and your friend saying, “Hey, what did you do that for?”

Understanding the biological basis of aggression is not difficult if you consider it in terms of animal behavior and their need to survive. What would make an animal become aggressive? It could be to protect the young ones (maternal aggression), to hunt (to reduce the drives of hunger and thirst), or to save life from enemies. It is interesting to note that the neural pathways and brain structures associated with hunger, thirst, and reproduction are connected to the structures associated with senses and emotions. Brain structures such as the hypothalamus and amygdala have been associated with emotional responses such as fear and aggression (Passamonti, Rowe, Ewbank, Hampshire, Keane, & Calder, 2008).

See the linked document for more on aggression.

Myers, D. (2008). Social psychology (9th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Passamonti, L., Rowe, J., Ewbank, M., Hampshire, A., Keane, J., & Calder, A.(2008). Connectivity from the ventral anterior cingulate to the amygdala is modulated by appetitive motivation in response to facial signals of aggression. Neuroimage, 43(3), 562–570. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2581780

 

Additional Materials

View the PDF transcript for Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment



media/week9/SUO_PSY3010 Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment.pdf

Operational Definitions and the Bobo
Doll Experiment

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

2
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

The Operational Definition of Aggression

To measure aggression, psychologists use an operational definition. An operational definition describes
behaviors that can be observed and recorded. Some of the common examples of each category of
operationally defined aggressive behavior is as follows:

Physical Aggression: This could include hitting, punching, grabbing, pinching, slapping, pushing, pulling
hair, biting, and throwing objects at others.

Verbal Aggression: This could include threatening to harm others. Yelling and screaming without threats
is nonverbal aggression.

Self-Injury: This could include self-injurious behavior (SIB), which include banging your head or body
against objects, hitting you own body with objects, and slapping or punching yourself.

Property Destruction: This could include throwing items and breaking objects such as windows,
television sets, pictures, and furniture.

A good way to understand the cognitive or learned basis of aggression is by observing young children in a
playground or a day-care center. Since the children are small, their aggressive acts will be proportional to
their size. Nevertheless, the intensity and frequency of their physical (hitting, pushing, punching, kicking,
and biting others) or verbal (yelling at others) aggressive behavior will be rather high.

If aggression has a biological component and children are frequently observed to engage in aggression,
then it would be logical to assume that as you mature you will learn how not to be aggressive or, in other
aspects, learn how to focus your aggressive behaviors on something that is socially acceptable such as
sports and other forms of competition. This perspective is speculative, but it does help in understanding
the link between the biological and learned aspect of aggression.

In the Bobo doll experiment (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961), children who observed aggressive models
(adults displaying aggression) were more apt to demonstrate aggression in a similar circumstance.
Insofar as the observation of adult models displaying aggression communicates permissiveness for
aggressive behavior, such exposure may serve to weaken inhibitory responses, increasing the probability
of aggressive reactions to convert to subsequent frustrations. However, the fact that subjects expressed
their aggression in ways clearly resembling the patterns exhibited by adult role models provides striking
evidence for the occurrence of learning by imitation (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961).

Children learn to control aggression through rewards and punishments. The study by Bandura first
allowed children to engage in behaviors otherwise admonished and then provided a method
(observational learning) to be less aggressive. Observational (social) learning also provides an explanation
for other types of aggressive behavior such as group behavior.

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

3
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

The Bobo Doll Experiment

Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1961) designed an experiment to study learned aggressive behavior. Bandura
used 36 boys and 36 girls with an average of age of four years. He requested one male and one female
candidate to act as adult role models.

The participants were divided into 8 experimental groups with 6 in each group and a control group of 24
children. The experimental groups were further divided into two groups. One group viewed aggressive
models and the other viewed nonaggressive models.

The children viewing adults being aggressive to the Bobo doll were much more likely to be aggressive
than those who did not view aggressive adults. Those viewing an adult of the same gender were also
more aggressive than those viewing an adult of the opposite gender.

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

4
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

References

Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggression

models. Journal of Abnormal & SocialPsychology, 63(3), 575–582.

© 2016 South University

Aggression.html

Aggression

Myers (2008) defines aggression as “physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm” (p. 345). However, this definition doesn’t encompass the complexities of aggressive behavior. In real-life scenarios, any form of aggression causes harm to others. If someone yells and threatens when there is nobody else around to hear, is it considered aggression or just yelling? This is not aggression. Aggression is the act of doing harm, which may include causing harm to self, to others, to objects, or to animals.

Aggression is a behavior, not a consequence. It cannot be judged as intentional or unintentional. For instance, if you walk up to a friend and slap your friend’s arm, your behavior would be considered as physical aggression. Slapping would be considered a behavior defining aggression. Now, consider a situation where you walk up to a friend and slap your friend’s arm because a big bee is about to sting. In this case your act of slapping will still be considered an aggressive behavior. The consequence of your action is the bee flying off and your friend saying, “Hey, what did you do that for?”

Understanding the biological basis of aggression is not difficult if you consider it in terms of animal behavior and their need to survive. What would make an animal become aggressive? It could be to protect the young ones (maternal aggression), to hunt (to reduce the drives of hunger and thirst), or to save life from enemies. It is interesting to note that the neural pathways and brain structures associated with hunger, thirst, and reproduction are connected to the structures associated with senses and emotions. Brain structures such as the hypothalamus and amygdala have been associated with emotional responses such as fear and aggression (Passamonti, Rowe, Ewbank, Hampshire, Keane, & Calder, 2008).

See the linked document for more on aggression.

Myers, D. (2008). Social psychology (9th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Passamonti, L., Rowe, J., Ewbank, M., Hampshire, A., Keane, J., & Calder, A.(2008). Connectivity from the ventral anterior cingulate to the amygdala is modulated by appetitive motivation in response to facial signals of aggression. Neuroimage, 43(3), 562–570. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2581780

 

Additional Materials

View the PDF transcript for Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment



media/week9/SUO_PSY3010 Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment.pdf

Operational Definitions and the Bobo
Doll Experiment

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

2
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

The Operational Definition of Aggression

To measure aggression, psychologists use an operational definition. An operational definition describes
behaviors that can be observed and recorded. Some of the common examples of each category of
operationally defined aggressive behavior is as follows:

Physical Aggression: This could include hitting, punching, grabbing, pinching, slapping, pushing, pulling
hair, biting, and throwing objects at others.

Verbal Aggression: This could include threatening to harm others. Yelling and screaming without threats
is nonverbal aggression.

Self-Injury: This could include self-injurious behavior (SIB), which include banging your head or body
against objects, hitting you own body with objects, and slapping or punching yourself.

Property Destruction: This could include throwing items and breaking objects such as windows,
television sets, pictures, and furniture.

A good way to understand the cognitive or learned basis of aggression is by observing young children in a
playground or a day-care center. Since the children are small, their aggressive acts will be proportional to
their size. Nevertheless, the intensity and frequency of their physical (hitting, pushing, punching, kicking,
and biting others) or verbal (yelling at others) aggressive behavior will be rather high.

If aggression has a biological component and children are frequently observed to engage in aggression,
then it would be logical to assume that as you mature you will learn how not to be aggressive or, in other
aspects, learn how to focus your aggressive behaviors on something that is socially acceptable such as
sports and other forms of competition. This perspective is speculative, but it does help in understanding
the link between the biological and learned aspect of aggression.

In the Bobo doll experiment (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961), children who observed aggressive models
(adults displaying aggression) were more apt to demonstrate aggression in a similar circumstance.
Insofar as the observation of adult models displaying aggression communicates permissiveness for
aggressive behavior, such exposure may serve to weaken inhibitory responses, increasing the probability
of aggressive reactions to convert to subsequent frustrations. However, the fact that subjects expressed
their aggression in ways clearly resembling the patterns exhibited by adult role models provides striking
evidence for the occurrence of learning by imitation (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961).

Children learn to control aggression through rewards and punishments. The study by Bandura first
allowed children to engage in behaviors otherwise admonished and then provided a method
(observational learning) to be less aggressive. Observational (social) learning also provides an explanation
for other types of aggressive behavior such as group behavior.

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

3
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

The Bobo Doll Experiment

Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1961) designed an experiment to study learned aggressive behavior. Bandura
used 36 boys and 36 girls with an average of age of four years. He requested one male and one female
candidate to act as adult role models.

The participants were divided into 8 experimental groups with 6 in each group and a control group of 24
children. The experimental groups were further divided into two groups. One group viewed aggressive
models and the other viewed nonaggressive models.

The children viewing adults being aggressive to the Bobo doll were much more likely to be aggressive
than those who did not view aggressive adults. Those viewing an adult of the same gender were also
more aggressive than those viewing an adult of the opposite gender.

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

4
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

References

Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggression

models. Journal of Abnormal & SocialPsychology, 63(3), 575–582.

© 2016 South University

Aggression.html

Aggression

Myers (2008) defines aggression as “physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm” (p. 345). However, this definition doesn’t encompass the complexities of aggressive behavior. In real-life scenarios, any form of aggression causes harm to others. If someone yells and threatens when there is nobody else around to hear, is it considered aggression or just yelling? This is not aggression. Aggression is the act of doing harm, which may include causing harm to self, to others, to objects, or to animals.

Aggression is a behavior, not a consequence. It cannot be judged as intentional or unintentional. For instance, if you walk up to a friend and slap your friend’s arm, your behavior would be considered as physical aggression. Slapping would be considered a behavior defining aggression. Now, consider a situation where you walk up to a friend and slap your friend’s arm because a big bee is about to sting. In this case your act of slapping will still be considered an aggressive behavior. The consequence of your action is the bee flying off and your friend saying, “Hey, what did you do that for?”

Understanding the biological basis of aggression is not difficult if you consider it in terms of animal behavior and their need to survive. What would make an animal become aggressive? It could be to protect the young ones (maternal aggression), to hunt (to reduce the drives of hunger and thirst), or to save life from enemies. It is interesting to note that the neural pathways and brain structures associated with hunger, thirst, and reproduction are connected to the structures associated with senses and emotions. Brain structures such as the hypothalamus and amygdala have been associated with emotional responses such as fear and aggression (Passamonti, Rowe, Ewbank, Hampshire, Keane, & Calder, 2008).

See the linked document for more on aggression.

Myers, D. (2008). Social psychology (9th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill.

Passamonti, L., Rowe, J., Ewbank, M., Hampshire, A., Keane, J., & Calder, A.(2008). Connectivity from the ventral anterior cingulate to the amygdala is modulated by appetitive motivation in response to facial signals of aggression. Neuroimage, 43(3), 562–570. Retrieved from http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2581780

 

Additional Materials

View the PDF transcript for Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment



media/week9/SUO_PSY3010 Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment.pdf

Operational Definitions and the Bobo
Doll Experiment

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

2
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

The Operational Definition of Aggression

To measure aggression, psychologists use an operational definition. An operational definition describes
behaviors that can be observed and recorded. Some of the common examples of each category of
operationally defined aggressive behavior is as follows:

Physical Aggression: This could include hitting, punching, grabbing, pinching, slapping, pushing, pulling
hair, biting, and throwing objects at others.

Verbal Aggression: This could include threatening to harm others. Yelling and screaming without threats
is nonverbal aggression.

Self-Injury: This could include self-injurious behavior (SIB), which include banging your head or body
against objects, hitting you own body with objects, and slapping or punching yourself.

Property Destruction: This could include throwing items and breaking objects such as windows,
television sets, pictures, and furniture.

A good way to understand the cognitive or learned basis of aggression is by observing young children in a
playground or a day-care center. Since the children are small, their aggressive acts will be proportional to
their size. Nevertheless, the intensity and frequency of their physical (hitting, pushing, punching, kicking,
and biting others) or verbal (yelling at others) aggressive behavior will be rather high.

If aggression has a biological component and children are frequently observed to engage in aggression,
then it would be logical to assume that as you mature you will learn how not to be aggressive or, in other
aspects, learn how to focus your aggressive behaviors on something that is socially acceptable such as
sports and other forms of competition. This perspective is speculative, but it does help in understanding
the link between the biological and learned aspect of aggression.

In the Bobo doll experiment (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961), children who observed aggressive models
(adults displaying aggression) were more apt to demonstrate aggression in a similar circumstance.
Insofar as the observation of adult models displaying aggression communicates permissiveness for
aggressive behavior, such exposure may serve to weaken inhibitory responses, increasing the probability
of aggressive reactions to convert to subsequent frustrations. However, the fact that subjects expressed
their aggression in ways clearly resembling the patterns exhibited by adult role models provides striking
evidence for the occurrence of learning by imitation (Bandura, Ross, & Ross, 1961).

Children learn to control aggression through rewards and punishments. The study by Bandura first
allowed children to engage in behaviors otherwise admonished and then provided a method
(observational learning) to be less aggressive. Observational (social) learning also provides an explanation
for other types of aggressive behavior such as group behavior.

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

3
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

The Bobo Doll Experiment

Bandura, Ross, and Ross (1961) designed an experiment to study learned aggressive behavior. Bandura
used 36 boys and 36 girls with an average of age of four years. He requested one male and one female
candidate to act as adult role models.

The participants were divided into 8 experimental groups with 6 in each group and a control group of 24
children. The experimental groups were further divided into two groups. One group viewed aggressive
models and the other viewed nonaggressive models.

The children viewing adults being aggressive to the Bobo doll were much more likely to be aggressive
than those who did not view aggressive adults. Those viewing an adult of the same gender were also
more aggressive than those viewing an adult of the opposite gender.

PSY3010 Social Psychology

©2016 South University

4
Operational Definitions and the Bobo Doll Experiment

Aggression

References

Bandura, A., Ross, D., & Ross, S. (1961). Transmission of aggression through imitation of aggression

models. Journal of Abnormal & SocialPsychology, 63(3), 575–582.

© 2016 South University



W9D

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Amanda Simpson posted May 19, 2022 7:42 PM


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Week 9 Discussion

Q1

Aggression is a behavior that is exhibited by most individuals leading to violence. In most cases, children in lower classes tend to be violent while exhibiting behaviors such as yelling at others. The observation can be used to support the argument that people are born aggressive since such children may not be much exposed to learn being aggressive. However, the behavior worsens and improves depending on the environmental exposure (Parens, 2008). People learn how not to be aggressive by exercising self-control thus lessening its intensity.

Q2

Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment entailed using a bobo doll, after which young children were divided into three groups. In one group, the children observed an adult being aggressive to the doll, while in another group, they observed a non-aggressive adult to the doll, in the last group, they had b no model at all (Bandura & Evans 2006). It was observed that when the children were left with the doll, those placed with an aggressive adult towards the doll were more aggressive than those placed with a non-aggressive adult towards the doll. Based on the result of the experiment, it can be concluded that aggressive behavior can be developed through observational learning. Thus, aggressive behavior is learned and acquired through observing other people’s behavior and reactions (Liu et al., 2013).

Q3

Aggression is a violent behavior that is meant to harm others. The factors in an individual that need to be considered when defining aggression include the intention of the violent behavior to determine whether there is an aim for the behavior or its due to provocation. Moreover, genetic and hormonal factors need to be considered to determine the cause of the behavior. Aggression can be categorized into reactive and proactive aggression (Miller & Lynam 2006). Proactive aggression occurs with a goal, while reactive aggression is performed as a result of provocation

References

Bandura, A., & Evans, R. I. (2006). Albert Bandura. Insight Media.

Liu, J., Lewis, G., & Evans, L. (2013). Understanding aggressive behavior across the lifespan. Journal of psychiatric and mental health nursing, 20(2), 156-168.

Miller, J. D., & Lynam, D. R. (2006). Reactive and proactive aggression: Similarities and differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 41(8), 1469-1480.

Parens, H. (2008). The development of aggression in early childhood. Jason Aronson.

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w9d1_dillard_c

Contains unread posts

Carla Dillard Scalf posted May 19, 2022 11:32 AM

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Week 9 Discussion

· If you have ever worked in a preschool or child day care, you may have observed volatile behaviors in some of the children such as hitting others, biting, slapping, yelling, and throwing objects at others. Would this observation support the premise that we are born aggressive and we learn not to be?

As a witness of children from all walks of life I have observed aggression from children that have never been exposed to the behavior. It supports that child are born with the aggression within their makeup and are taught how to cope. This behavior can be enhanced by their peers and inner circle of family, or it can be toned down. We have all experienced that sweet innocent face of a child when they are “hangry” or not getting the attention they are looking for.

Our book explains that aggression is a physical or verbal behavior that is intended to cause harm. Myers, D. (2018). If the intention is not present the action or behavior does not fall into what is defined as aggression. Revenge is a type of aggression. Aggression is described in the book as being a biological phenomenon. It is an instinct. It is universal meaning that it there is some in all. When a kid is able to intimidate a child successfully (gain the reward of success) this becomes sought.

Describe the theoretical basis of the Bandura’s Bobo doll experiment. Based on the results of the experiment, explain your conclusions regarding aggressive behavior.

When there is reward, it doesn’t necessarily mean that there is a piece of candy at the end of the behavior. Reward is internal, and a personal reward we all love is success. If behavior of aggression is instinct but can be enhanced. The theory is social learning theory.

· Describe what is meant by the term “aggression”? What factors in an individual need to be considered when defining aggression? How can aggression be categorized? Aggression is either social or physical which is derived from the internal self. It is affiliated with anger. Instrumental aggression also intends to hurt or injure with the end site being revenge. The social learning view is what considers aggression as a learned behavior. It says that viewing our peers and inner circle and even that of a particular culture or group teaches us more in-depth how aggression can be considered a learned behavior. Myers, D. (2018).

References

Myers, D. (2018). Social Psychology (13th Edition). McGraw-Hill Higher Education (US).
https://digitalbookshelf.southuniversity.edu/books/9781260140569

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