What justifies punishment?

What justifies punishment?

What justifies punishment?  We punish people by making them pay fines, forcing them to do community service, putting them in jail or prison, or by limiting their freedoms in other ways (the restrictions placed on felons, or those on parole).  The question here is twofold:

1.) What do you think are the reasons that our society has chosen to punish people in the way that it does?  Are there any goals to our forms of punishment?

2.) Now think about morality and your own beliefs.  Why do you personally think punishment is justified?  Ethically, why ought we punish people?  What makes it not only permissible, but the right thing to do?

A good answer will be thoughtful, consistent, and thorough (at least a paragraph per question

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