Write a 5 pages paper on how we are to think upon truth, is as diverse a topic as principles of biology or mathematics.

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Write a 5 pages paper on how we are to think upon truth, is as diverse a topic as principles of biology or mathematics. Knowledge in philosophy denotes justified true belief. In trying to explain epistemology, philosophers developed different ideologies. The use of perception in relation to sensitive data to determine knowledge and, therefore, the truth has yielded a lot of debate. For instance, direct realism holds that the world consists of mind-independent physical objects. Through perception, an individual is directly aware of the independent objects. Then comes the science that states, what we perceive as an object is but a reflection of light. Scientists justify their claim beyond a reasonable doubt, in which case the absence of light is equal to the inability to see the object. Perception is, however, not dependent on one sense for humans to have an abundance of five. For instance, in the dark one can still hear when he bumps into the object, feel its texture and approximate its size (touch), taste the surface, and take in its scent (smell).

Indirect realism tries to distinguish objects that are physically real and objects perceived by the mind. Indirect realists achieve this by assuming that humans are indirectly aware of mind-independent objects. The study of the human mind has revealed that there are states in which the mind cannot distinguish true perceptions from false perceptions. Such states include illusions, dreams, and other phenomena such as hallucinations which are real to minds as if they were in normal states. These states, therefore, disclaim the validity of both direct and indirect realism. This, in summary, dictates that the mind’s interpretation of the light ergo the object and in extension truth is as far as the individual mind perceives. Idealism holds that all physical objects are nothing more than just a collection of sensory ideas. In light of this, idealists can contradictorily say that 1) we are perceptually aware of actual physical things, but 2) all experiences are experiences of mental representations.

Justification and belief are not enough to make a premise true as mentioned earlier. This insufficiency results in the Gettier problem.


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