Your assignment is to prepare and submit a paper on philosophers about the importance of law and order. The concepts were the reactions against the 19th century Europe rampant capitalism which established an intellectual base for the impending revolutionary and radical communism and socialism. Thomas Hobbes describes how the natural state of a man appeared to be brute-like and poor (Vaughan, G. M. (2007). As an empiricist, Hobbes (1994) shows how individuals intentionally give up natural rights in exchange for protection. These individuals accept abuse of power at the expense of their natural rights to have peace. Hobbes (1994) describes it as authoritarianism and totalitarianism. Jean-Jacques Rousseau used popular will theory to depict the concept of inequality and the social contract in society (Ferrari, A. 1992). As a rationalist, Rousseau used the sense of reasons to justify his view. Niccolò .Machiavelli presented the practices and principles of political leadership and offered practical advice to young people who wish to become political leaders. As an empiricist, Machiavelli believed mankind only flourishes in a well-run state and considered the state’s law as human artifacts (Machiavelli, 1988).
Marx concentrated on the social and economic relationship in which persons earn livings. Marx wanted to understand how capitalist society works and how it gets out of feudalism. In all these, Marx saw the appearance of law and order of capitalism to be behind the struggle of capitalists and working-class (Marx. et al. 1992). To explain the philosophy well, Marx developed the alienation theory, the theory of labor value and concept of materialism (Salevao, 2005). Marx depicts socialism as an unrealized potential inherent from capitalism (DAS, 1996). The study of capitalism by Marx was based on materialist and dialectical (Salevao, 2005). In respect to dialectics, the focus is on changes and interaction in institutions and processes. The concept of materialism instils ideas into heads of living persons (Marx.et al.1992). .